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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and health behavior comparing urban and rural participants, and Kikuyus and Kalenjins

From: Urbanization, ethnicity and cardiovascular risk in a population in transition in Nakuru, Kenya: a population-based survey

  Urban (n = 1437) Rural (n = 2959) Age and sex adjusted OR (95% CI) Kikuyu (n = 2760) Kalenjin (n = 1015) Age and sex adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age       
50-59 57% 38% Baseline 40% 40% Baseline
60-69 26% 31% 0.6 (0.5-0.7) 32% 28% 1.2 (1.0-1.4)
70-79 11% 20% 0.4 (0.3-0.5) 17% 20% 0.9 (0.7-1.1)
≥80 6% 11% 0.4 (0.3-0.5) 10% 11% 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
Sex       
Men 49% 47% Baseline 44% 53% Baseline
Women 51% 53% 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 56% 47% 1.4 (1.2-1.6)
Language       
Kikuyu 65% 62% Baseline    
Kalenjin 6% 31% 0.2 (0.1-0.2)    
Other 29% 7% 3.3 (2.7-4.0)    
Urban     931 (34%) 84 (8%) Baseline
Rural     1812 (66%) 924 (92%) 5.7 (4.5-7.2)
Education       
Any 79% 61% 1.4 (1.3-1.6) 71% 51% 1.9 (1.7-2.1)
None 21% 39% Baseline 29% 49% Baseline
SES score       
1 (poorest) 8% 33% Baseline 20% 44% Baseline
2 14% 31% 1.6 (1.2-2.0) 26% 27% 2.4 (2.0-2.9)
3 24% 26% 3.1 (2.5-3.9) 27% 20% 3.4 (2.8-4.2)
4 (richest) 54% 11% 16.7 (13.3-21.1) 26% 9% 7.8 (6.0-10.2)
Smoking       
Never 70% 70% Baseline 69% 73% Baseline
Current 7% 8% 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 8% 6% 0.5 (0.3-0.6)
Former 23% 22% 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 24% 20% 2.0 (1.6-2.5)
Alcohol       
Never 41% 38% Baseline 45% 23% Baseline
Former 41% 46% 0.9 (0.7-1.0) 44% 49% 0.4 (0.3-0.5)
Current 18% 17% 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 11% 28% 0.2 (0.1-0.2)
BMI cat       
Underweight 8% 17% 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 12% 21% 0.7 (0.6-0.9)
Normal 41% 54% Baseline 48% 56% Baseline
Overweight 30% 19% 2.1 (1.7-2.4) 25% 15% 1.9 (1.5-2.3)
Obese 20% 10% 2.8 (2.3-3.5) 14% 8% 2.0 (1.5-2.6)