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Table 3 Inequality in risk factors prevalence in Switzerland by language region and sex

From: Educational inequalities in mortality and associated risk factors: German- versus French-speaking Switzerland

  German-speaking Switzerland French-speaking Switzerland  
   Prevalence (%) overall and by educational level Prevalence decrease per additional year of education   Prevalence (%) overall and by educational level Prevalence decrease per additional year of education GS vs. FS*
  N all low middle high % 95% CI N all low middle high % 95% CI p-value
Men (N = 3,241)                
Current smoking 579 23 21 26 18 6.46 (6.27;6.66) 260 28 32 30 24 6.99 (6.70;7.29) 0.004
Daily alcohol consumption 815 35 41 35 31 4.08 (3.91;4.24) 465 52 56 54 45 4.80 (4.55;5.05) < 0.001
Infrequent fruit consumption 719 26 31 30 29 2.39 (2.22;2.55) 338 30 33 38 33 4.66 (4.40;4.93) < 0.001
Physical inactivity 812 33 42 35 27 7.12 (6.95;7.30) 336 36 45 37 29 8.52 (8.24;8.80) < 0.001
Obesity 198 9 15 8 8 12.80 (12.5;13.1) 82 8 13 8 5 18.12 (17.6;18.7) < 0.001
Less-than-good health 394 16 21 18 11 7.38 (7.15;7.61) 171 19 30 17 14 7.32 (6.97;7.67) 0.769
Women (N = 4,137)                
Current smoking 566 19 19 18 22 4.30 (4.05;4.54) 285 22 23 24 17 8.32 (7.98;8.67) < 0.001
Daily alcohol consumption 311 10 9 10 14 -7.76 (-8.00;-7.50) 320 28 23 33 23 -3.30 (-3.67;-3.03) < 0.001
Infrequent fruit consumption 471 10 15 14 12 5.38 (5.10;5.70) 308 20 29 22 23 6.09 (5.77;6.41) 0.001
Physical inactivity 1209 39 47 35 36 9.17 (8.96;9.38) 555 47 53 46 35 7.52 (7.24;7.80) < 0.001
Obesity 214 7 11 6 3 27.01 (26.5;27.5) 80 6 10 5 3 26.99 (26.3;27.7) 0.960
Less-than-good health 588 19 25 16 12 12.50 (12.2;12.8) 319 27 35 22 22 8.70 (8.36;9.05) < 0.001
  1. *Statistical significance of the difference between Swiss regions in decrease of mortality per additional year of education
  2. 1992/93, 40-79 years
  3. N: Number of persons reporting respective risk factors
  4. Educational level: low = no secondary or tertiary education (ISCED 1-2), middle = secondary education (ISCED 3-4); high = tertiary education (ISCED 5-6)
  5. Data source: Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Swiss Health Survey 1992/93