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Table 2 Inequality in mortality in Switzerland by language region and cause of death in women

From: Educational inequalities in mortality and associated risk factors: German- versus French-speaking Switzerland

  German Switzerland (GS) French Switzerland (FS)   
   Rate overall and by educational level Rate decrease per additional year of education   Rate overall and by educational level Rate decrease per additional year of education GS vs. FS* Significance of region*
  deaths all low middle high % 95% CI deaths all low middle high % 95% CI p-value z-value
All causes 77227 600 668 533 481 6.17 (5.77;6.58) 23184 572 629 502 462 5.07 (4.42;5.72) 0.004 2.84
Circulatory system 24935 177 209 141 110 11.42 (10.61;12.23) 6780 153 180 115 97 11.20 (9.75;12.68) 0.801 0.25
   Coronary heart disease 10743 76 90 59 46 12.13 (10.88;13.39) 2368 53 65 37 29 14.23 (11.58;16.95) 0.160 -1.4
   Other heart diseases 5223 37 44 31 24 9.76 (8.06;11.48) 2201 50 57 40 34 8.99 (6.59;11.45) 0.612 0.51
   Stroke 2627 38 44 31 24 10.22 (8.53;11.94) 681 31 36 24 21 9.18 (6.14;12.31) 0.562 0.58
Cancer 30890 256 269 244 233 2.46 (1.87;3.05) 9464 248 259 240 225 1.55 (0.65;2.46) 0.098 1.66
   UADT cancer 717 6 7 6 4 4.19 (0.26;8.27) 324 9 9 9 7 3.40 (-1.56;8.60) 0.062 1.87
   Stomach cancer 1038 8 10 6 6 13.61 (9.65;17.71) 319 8 9 7 6 6.87 (1.25;12.81) 0.547 -0.6
   Intestinal cancer 3165 25 25 25 24 0.42 (-1.36;2.23) 932 23 23 23 20 0.27 (-2.53;3.15) 0.932 0.09
   Liver cancer 515 4 4 4 3 3.75 (-0.91;8.63) 195 5 6 4 4 6.82 (-0.36;14.51) 0.490 -0.69
   Lung cancer 3189 28 30 27 23 2.46 (0.64;4.31) 1285 34 38 33 29 4.06 (1.50;6.69) 0.317 -1
   Breast cancer 7146 63 61 63 66 -1.01 (-2.14;0.13) 2099 58 59 58 55 0.41 (-1.38;2.23) 0.186 -1.32
Other diseases 12898 96 113 80 70 7.86 (6.98;8.76) 3698 86 100 69 58 7.64 (6.23;9.07) 0.791 0.26
   COPD 2047 15 18 13 9 8.52 (5.89;11.22) 505 12 13 10 9 7.58 (2.84;12.54) 0.738 0.33
   Liver cirrhosis 1209 11 13 10 10 5.40 (2.36;8.53) 418 12 14 10 9 9.62 (4.72;14.76) 0.153 -1.43
   Ill-defined 1331 11 11 11 17 -4.97 (-7.36;-2.53) 1014 26 27 24 26 2.01 (-0.76;4.86) < 0.001 -3.75
Injuries 3917 34 35 33 33 0.91 (-0.66;2.50) 1305 35 36 34 39 0.40 (-1.83;2.69) 0.718 0.36
   Suicide 1751 16 16 17 18 -2.22 (-4.36;-0.03) 574 17 17 17 19 -1.17 (-4.28;2.05) 0.587 -0.54
   Transport accident 509 4 5 4 3 2.61 (-1.82;7.25) 205 5 5 6 7 -2.45 (-7.57;2.95) 0.149 1.44
Smoking-related 5980 49 54 46 36 4.78 (3.37;6.20) 2128 55 61 52 45 4.25 (2.21;6.33) 0.678 0.42
Alcohol-related 2861 25 28 24 20 4.59 (2.61;6.61) 1050 29 33 26 22 7.44 (4.41;10.57) 0.123 -1.54
  1. *Statistical significance of the difference between Swiss regions in decrease of mortality per additional year of education
  2. 1990-2000, 40-79 years
  3. ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education
  4. UADT: Upper aerodigestive tract; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  5. Educational level: low = no secondary or tertiary education (ISCED 1-2), middle = secondary education (ISCED 3-4); high = tertiary education (ISCED 5-6)
  6. Rates were standardized to the WHO standard population "Europe" [13]
  7. Data source: Swiss Federal Statistical Office/Swiss National Cohort