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Table 3 Intervention effects on utilization of prenatal health care: difference in difference (D-in-D) estimation

From: The evaluation of "Safe Motherhood" program on maternal care utilization in rural western China: a difference in difference approach

Outcome variable No covariate With covariates
  D-in-D estimator (SE) R 2 P D-in-D estimator (SE) R 2 P
Had a prenatal visit 0.058 (0.008) 0.054 0.001 0.052 (0.008) 0.085 0.001
First prenatal visit in first trimester 0.134 (0.015) 0.083 0.001 0.120 (0.015) 0.103 0.001
Had a hospital delivery 0.231 (0.012) 0.210 0.001 0.225 (0.013) 0.244 0.001
Was mobilized to hospital delivery -0.050(0.016) 0.181 0.001 -0.037 (0.021) 0.187 0.073
  1. The difference in difference estimator was estimated using linear regression model adjusting for covariates including women's age, women's ethnicity, parity, the distance between village and township, and average income of village per year.