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Table 2 Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) from Poisson regression analysis of male and female mortality 1991-2001.

From: Marital history, health and mortality among older men and women in England and Wales

  Men Women
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
  IRR IRR IRR IRR
Age 1.10*** (1.10-1.10) 1.10*** (1.09-1.10) 1.10*** (1.10-1.11) 1.10*** (1.10-1.11)
Marital history
1st marriage - long term (20+ years)
1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
1st marriage- since 1971 0.83 (0.66-1.04) 0.81 (0.64-1.01) 1.24 (0.92-1.67) 1.23 (0.91-1.67)
Remarried - long term (20+years) 1.11** (1.03-1.19) 1.13** (1.05-1.21) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.08 (0.96-1.21)
Remarried since 1971, previously widowed 0.92 (0.82-1.03) 0.93 (0.83-1.05) 1.03 (0.88-1.21) 1.00 (0.86-1.17)
Remarried since 1971, previously divorced 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 1.03 (0.92-1.15) 1.21** (1.08-1.37) 1.16* (1.03-1.31)
Widowed- long term (20+ years) 1.49*** (1.28-1.74) 1.34*** (1.15-1.56) 1.21*** (1.13-1.30) 1.10* (1.02-1.18)
Widowed- intermediate (10-19 years) 1.46*** (1.33-1.61) 1.36*** (1.24-1.50) 1.19*** (1.12-1.26) 1.09** (1.03-1.15)
Widowed- recent (< 10 years) 1.28*** (1.21-1.36) 1.20*** (1.14-1.27) 1.19*** (1.14-1.25) 1.12** (1.07-1.17)
Divorced- long term (20+ years) 1.24* (1.01-1.53) 1.11 (0.90-1.36) 1.38*** (1.19-1.61) 1.23** (1.05-1.43)
Divorced- intermediate (10-19 years) 1.43*** (1.26-1.62) 1.30*** (1.15-1.48) 1.26*** (1.10-1.43) 1.13 (0.99-1.29)
Divorced- recent (< 10 years) 1.23* (1.04-1.46) 1.15 (0.97-1.36) 1.61*** (1.32-1.95) 1.47*** (1.21-1.79)
Never-married 1.38*** (1.29-1.48) 1.22*** (1.14-1.31) 1.18*** (1.10-1.27) 1.12** (1.04-1.20)
Socioeconomic variables         
Educational qual. 1971 (ref. none)    0.91*** (0.86-0.97)    0.84*** (0.78-0.91)
Tenure/car score 1971-91 (0-9)    0.95*** (0.95-0.96)    0.95*** (0.95-0.96)
Social class score 1971-81 (0-6)    0.96*** (0.95-0.97)     
Current marital status         
All in 1 st marriage 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
All remarried 1.05 (0.99-1.11) 1.06* (1.00-1.12) 1.12** (1.04-1.21) 1.09* (1.01-1.18)
All widowed 1.34*** (1.27-1.41) 1.25*** (1.19-1.31) 1.19*** (1.14-1.24) 1.11*** (1.06-1.15)
All divorced 1.34*** (1.22-1.47) 1.22*** (1.11-1.34) 1.36*** (1.24-1.49) 1.22*** (1.11-1.34)
Never-married 1.38*** (1.29-1.48) 1.22*** (1.14-1.31) 1.19*** (1.10-1.27) 1.12** (1.04-1.20)
Number of deaths 13,296    12,254   
  1. Notes: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001