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Table 2 Factors associated with HIV infection among women of all ages.

From: Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

     CRUDE   ADJUSTED
  N % HIV+ OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Age group         
14-19 803 3.2 0.40 0.26-0.61 0.000 0.44 0.25-0.76 0.006
20-24 1140 7.8 1    1   
25-29 903 9.8 1.28 0.93-1.75 0.120 1.28 0.80-2.04 0.277
30-34 601 9.7 1.26 0.95-1.67 0.095 1.25 0.79-1.96 0.315
35+ 392 7.7 0.98 0.69-1.39 0.897 1.15 0.53-2.48 0.707
Number of pregnancies, grouped         
First pregnancy 932 5.0 0.48 0.31-0.72 0.002 1.70 0.87-3.33 0.114
gravidity 2 801 8.2 0.80 0.59-1.10 0.154 0.84 0.58-1.22 0.337
gravidity 3 637 10.1 1    1   
gravidity 4 804 8.7 0.85 0.63-1.16 0.284 0.68 0.49-0.95 0.026
gravidity 5+ 665 6.6 0.63 0.44-0.92 0.020 0.57 0.32-1.03 0.062
Ever had a stillbirth/miscarriage         
Never had a stillbirth/miscarriage 3509 7.4 1      
Had a stillbirth/miscarriage 329 9.7 1.35 0.95-1.93 0.091    
Time of most recent birth 1         
No previous births/last birth within 2 years 1713 5.2 1    1   
Last birth >2 years ago 2074 9.4 1.89 1.45-2.47 <0.001 1.71 1.08-2.71 0.026
Survival of last birth child 1         
Last child born still alive/no last born child 3500 6.9 1    1   
Last child born died 287 15.3 2.46 1.75-3.45 <0.001 2.09 1.36-3.22 0.003
Time between first sex and marriage 2         
Years between first sex and marriage 6153   1.1 1.05-1.15 <0.001 1.08 1.04-1.13 0.001
Cohabitation status         
Never cohabited 206 9.7 1.39 0.80-2.41 0.224    
Currently married/cohabiting 3409 7.2 1      
Married but not living with baby's father 138 8.7 1.23 0.56-2.72 0.585    
Been married but not living with baby's father 86 16.3 2.51 1.19-5.28 0.019    
Number of marriages         
None or one 3257 6.4 1      
Been married more than once 582 14.4 2.49 1.75-3.53 0.000 2.73 1.76-4.23 0.000
Had other sexual partners in last 12 months         
No other partners 3689 7.4 1      
Had >1 partner in last year 126 12.7 1.81 1.11-2.95 0.020    
DK/refused to say about partners in last year 24 4.2 0.54 0.05-6.07 0.595    
Travelled to clinic by:         
Foot 2782 7.9 1      
Bicycle 714 5.2 0.63 0.45-0.89 0.013    
Bus 204 10.3 1.33 0.74-2.38 0.310    
Car/motorbike/canoe 139 8.6 1.09 0.55-2.17 0.780    
Ever been tested for HIV         
Never previously tested 3683 7.4 1      
Tested before this pregnancy 151 9.9 1.38 0.80-2.37 0.226    
Tested this pregnancy 5 60 18.74 4.03-87.2 0.001    
Married less than a year         
Married >1 year 3182 8.0 1 0.29-0.79     
Married <1 year 431 3.9 0.48 0.69-2.05 0.007 0.54 0.32-0.91 0.025
Never married 226 9.3 1.19   0.516 1.37 0.73-2.59 0.306
Personal preference         
Chose clinic for other reasons 3759 7.5 1      
Chose clinic for personal preference 80 11.3 1.56 0.98-2.49 0.059    
Straight line distance to clinic         
Distance (km) 7238   0.97 0.94-0.99 0.023    
Number of women    3839    3114