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Table 5 Adjusted prevalence odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/emphysema and lifestyle behaviors, body mass index, and perceived health stratified by age, sex, education, and urban living environment

From: Lifestyle and perceived health in subjects with chronic bronchitis or emphysema: a cross-sectional study

   Age* Sex# Education¶ Settlement†
   ≤65 > 65 male female elementary Secondary/university urban rural
Consumption of fruits Every day 1.031
(0.816-1.304)
0.781
(0.572-1.067)
0.757
(0.559-1.027)
1.071
(0.842-1.363)
0.937
(0.706-1.244)
0.941
(0.733-1.207)
0.916
(0.699-1.200)
0.950
(0.733-1.233)
  Less than every day 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Consumption of vegetables Every day 1.092
(0.862-1.384)
1.548
(1.139-2.104)
1.257
(0.938-1.686)
1.214
(0.950-1.551)
1.294
(0.983-1.704)
1.170
(0.905-1.512)
1.188
(0.907-1.556)
1.278
(0.984-1.661)
  Less than every day 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Smoking Current smokers 1.548
(1.259-1.904)
1.692
(1.191-2.403)
1.270
(0.960-1.680)
1.801
(1.429-2.269)
1.563
(1.156-2.112)
1.579
(1.263-1.974)
1.658
(1.297-2.120)
1.491
(1.149-1.935)
  Nonsmokers 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Binge alcohol use At risk 1.244
(0.788-1.964)
0.896
0.368-2.186)
0.949
(0.583-1.545)
2.294
(1.106-4.757)
1.387
(0.734-2.619)
1.014
(0.597-1.722)
1.010
(0.558-1.830)
1.279
(0.733-2.231)
  Not at risk 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Heavy consumption of alcohol At risk 0.863
(0.482-1.545)
1.183
(0.705-1.983)
1.068
(0.710-1.606)
0.748
(0.221-2.530)
0.959
(0.558-1.649)
1.110
(0.643-1.915)
1.059
(0.566-1.981)
1.009
(0.620-1.644)
  Not at risk 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Physical activity Active 1.051
(0.846-1.307)
1.071
(0.760-1.511)
1.217
(0.920-1.610)
0.951
(0.743-1.217)
1.088
(0.809-1.465)
1.048
(0.829-1.324)
1.207
(0.933-1.561)
0.947
(0.726-1.235)
  Not active 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Body mass index < 25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  25-30 0.942
(0.742-1.194)
0.969
(0.713-1.318)
0.783
(0.585-1.049)
1.006
(0.785-1.289)
0.945
(0.705-1.267)
0.867
(0.677-1.110)
0.810
(0.616-1.064)
1.022
(0.788-1.327)
  > 30 1.128
(0.862-1.477)
0.967
(0.679-1.377)
1.073
(0.757-1.520)
0.993
(0.755-1.306)
1.196
(0.880-1.627)
0.820
(0.602-1.116)
0.926
(0.678-1.264)
1.115
(0.831-1.495)
Perceived health Very bad/bad 6.514
(4.868-8.717)
3.252
(2.126-4.973)
4.045
(2.790-5.863)
5.434
(3.888-7.594)
4.359
(2.959-6.421)
4.833
(3.455-6.762)
4.590
(3.210-6.562)
4.811
(3.398-6.810)
  Fair 2.459
(1.929-3.136)
1.839
(1.224-2.765)
1.752
(1.269-2.419)
2.520
(1.892-3.356)
2.019
(1.385-2.944)
2.214
(1.710-2.866)
2.144
(1.596-2.879)
2.240
(1.645-3.050)
  Good/very good 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. *adjusted for sex, education and settlement; # adjusted for age, education and settlement; ¶ adjusted for age, sex and settlement; †adjusted for age, sex and education; 1.00 reference category