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Table 1 Main epidemiological studies of low dose radiation-induced cataracts

From: Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in interventional cardiology (O'CLOC study): are X-Rays involved?

  Population size Exposure level Exposure age or period Eye examination age or period Type of cataracts involved
Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors
Otake et al. [5] Cohort of 1983 individuals - H & N: Mean age = 29.3 yrs and 23.4 yrs 1963-1964 γ-ray threshold: 730 mGy neutron-ray threshold: 60 mGy
Minamoto et al.[6] Cohort of 873 individuals Eye dose= 405 mSv Mean age = 8.8 yrs Mean age = 64.8 yrs Cortical opacities PS opacities
Nakashima et al.[7] Cohort of 730 individuals - Median age = 10.5 yrs Median age = 66.6 yrs Threshold dose: 0.6 Sv for cortical opacities 0.7 Sv for PS cataracts
Chernobyl children
Day et al.[8] 996 exposed/791 unexposed - Chronic Range = 5 - 17 yrs PS opacities
Contaminated buildings in Taiwan
Chen et al.[9] Cohort of 114 individuals 161.9 mSv Chronic Mean= 24.8 yrs Focal lens defects
Diagnostic examinations
Klein et al.[10] 4926 subjects Diagnostic X-Ray exposure - Range = 43 - 84 yrs PS opacities
Treatment of benign diseases
Wilde et al.[12] 20 adults treated by radium irradiation Range: 1-8 Gy Median age = 6 months Range = 31 - 46 yrs Subcapsular punctuate opacities at 100 mGy
Hall et al. [11] 483 individuals treated by radiotherapy vs. 89 controls 0.4 Gy (0-8.4) Mean age = 5 months Range = 36 - 54 yrs PS opacities and Cortical opacities
Chernobyl Liquidators
Worgul et al.[13] 8,607 Ukrainian workers Median lens dose = 120 mGy (0-0.8) Mean age = 36.7 yrs Mean = 45 yrs PS changes and Cortical cataracts
Astronauts
Cucinotta et al[14] 295 astronauts Mean eye dose = 3.6 mSv Chronic (at least 40 yrs old at first flight) First eye exam in 1977 PS cataracts, Nuclear cataracts and mixed
Rastegar et al.[15] 21 astronauts vs. 395 unexposed - Mean time in space = 62 days Mean = 59 yrs in astronauts group Opacities in posterior capsule
Chylack et al.[16] 171 astronauts vs. 247 unexposed Lens dose = 15.1 to 129.3 mSv - 2004-2006 Cortical cataracts and PS opacities
Airline pilots
Rafnsonn et al.[17] 274 pilots with lens opacities vs. 374 controls Cumulative dose: 0 to 48 mSv - Mean = 75 yrs in cases; 66.1 yrs in controls Nuclear cataract
Radiologists and radiological technologists
Chodick et al.[18] Cohort of 35 705 radiology technicians Median = 28.1 mGy Range = 24 - 44 yrs Follow up between 1983 and 2004 Any cataract
  1. PSC: posterior subcapsular cataract; PS: posterior subcapsular;