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Table 2 Example of step-wise analysis for the theme: Obstacles to Contraceptives Use.

From: Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives

Codes Sub-categories Categories
Pills burn woman's eggs   
Pills pile up in body cause swellings, cancer, spoils tubes   
Oral methods are abortifacient, and cause birth defects   
Coil pierces womb   
Condom damages womb, grooves porous, lubricant infectious   
Condom break, get stuck, may cause death Misconceptions Misconceptions and Fears
Side effects are permanent   
Contraceptives cause infertility, guilty of not bearing children   
Lived or peers experiences of side effects Fears  
Condom faulty- 'whites' insert HIV in condom   
Contraceptives make women sick and fail to work   
Men reject discussion, disapprove contraceptives use   
Men abusive, violent, abandon women using contraceptives   
Women need men's permission Power relation Gender power relations
Men intimidate, manipulate girls into sex without contraceptives   
Men use pregnancy to control and attach women in relationships   
Couple disagree on use, consensus rare   
Men decide on number of children, when to use a method or not Decision making  
Male persuasive, girls are shy, ignorant and weak to negotiate for use and negotiation  
Men take contraception lightly consider it a woman's problem   
Women's purpose in life is child bearing   
Women face dilemma, men demand gender distribution of children Social norms and Socio-cultural expectations
Society condemn early sex, pregnancy, contraceptive use by young people expectations and contradictions
Contraceptives for married with enough children   
Men want children from different wives   
Parents, partners, in-laws have strong negative feelings on contraceptives   
Religion oppose use of contraceptives   
Society links contraceptive use to promiscuity   
Women fear to be seen at health center or shop seeking contraceptives   
Young people using contraceptives are spoiled Stigma  
Embarrassing to attend FP clinics or to buy condoms   
Men suspicious if women brings or knows how to use condom   
Men refuse contraception, but say children are women's responsibility   
Parents not open on sex matters, but scare youth from contraception   
Parents angered when find girls or boys with contraceptives Contradictions  
Parents force girl/boy to marry early if pregnant   
Abortion option for girls not to have a baby   
Religion view contraception as murder, a sin   
Pre-marital sex not a problem, men/women start sex early   
Apparent trust, men develop trust in women quickly, rarely use FP   
Girls perceived to be too young to get pregnant   
Male partner's duty to use protection   
Contraception not priority, and preference of sex without condom Emerging attitudes Short term planning dilemma
Perceived love of a girl abandon condom use   
Pregnancy is a means to acquire a partner for marriage   
Poverty-sex with older men and commercial sex   
Sex done in a hurry, no time to get condom after convincing the girl   
Girls want sex, are not patient during courtship, abstinence outdated Immediate gratification  
Young men compete for girls, use pregnancy to win them over   
Pleasure from sex overrides fear for pregnancy   
Cost burden for transport and contraceptives   
Use of condoms expensive with consistent partner   
Limited method to choose from and irregular stocks Uncertainty for continued use Health systems barriers
Long distance to health center, queue and waiting time, shops close early   
Providers too busy with sick people, seeking service is not convenient   
Provider dictate methods for young people, not friendly   
Provider advise on abstinence and not contraception   
Providers report young people seeking contraception to parent or partner Provider paternalistic attitudes  
Fear to collide with parents at Health Center