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Table 2 Annual cost-of-illness (Euros, millions) of hypertension and the proportion of costs attributable to MetS; 2008 and 2020.

From: Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

  Annual costs
  Drug1 Physician2 CVD3 Type 2 diabetes4 Total
2008
Germany      
   With MetS† 628 1,952 5,265 16,582 24,427
   Without MetS‡ 407 1,264 1,703 1,967 5,341
Spain      
   With MetS 116 126 699 968 1,909
   Without MetS 397 432 1,256 597 2,682
Italy      
   With MetS 258 330 817 3,472 4,877
   Without MetS 958 1,222 1,599 2,178 5,957
2020
Germany      
   With MetS† 901 2,820 8,026 27,208 38,955
   Without MetS‡ 270 817 1,124 1,600 3,811
Spain      
   With MetS 301 333 1,952 2,743 5,329
   Without MetS 384 412 1,240 816 2,852
Italy      
   With MetS 629 813 2,117 8,964 12,523
   Without MetS 877 1,109 1,500 2,701 6,187
  1. CVD-cardiovascular disease.
  2. † hypertension patients with MetS, ‡ hypertension patients without MetS.
  3. 1Drug costs relate to antihypertensive treatments only, 2physician costs relate to visits to the clinic as a result of hypertension for check-ups and assessment of antihypertensive medication, 3CVD costs relate to ambulatory and hospitalisation costs for the management of each event, 4type 2 diabetes costs relate to the management of each patients and the costs of non-CVD related complications.