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Table 2 Overview of studies on childhood psychosocial factors and overweight and obesity

From: Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

No. Authors Year Nation/Abbr. N Age at baseline Follow up (years) Risk factor Outcome Effect size (95%CI or SE)
(adjusted)
Study quality score1
O1 [67] Giskes et al. 2008 NL
GLOBE
1,465 40-60 13 Father´s occupation
blue-, white collar, professional
Self-reported weight, height², BMI change OR (CI) blue vs. professional m 0.9 (0.6; 1.4)
w 2.8 (1.6; 5.2)
1 (D = 0; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 0)
O2 [65] Kristensen et al. 2006 DK
EHYS
384 8-10 (3rd grade) 6 Mother´s occupation
blue-white collar
Measured weight, height³, Developing overweight at T2 OR (CI)
blue vs. white collar
2.4 (1.02; 5.4) 4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)
O3 [54] Novak et al. 2005 SE 1,044 16 14 Father´s occupation
blue-white collar
Measured weight, height (16y)4/self-reported (30y)² OR (CI)
blue vs. white collar
m 1.4 (0.7; 2.6)
w 1.4 (0.8; 1.4)
4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 1)
O4 [66] Elgar et al. 2005 UK
HBSC
355 12.3 (mean) 4 Parental occupationb Measured weight, height4 β (SE) -0.05 (0.08) 4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 1)
O5 [55] Power et al. 2003 UK 11,405 0 33 Father´s occupation
5 levels a
Self-reported weight, height; 90th intracohort percentile OR (CI), continuous variable m 1.04 (0.9; 1.2)
w 1.10 (1.07; 1.1)
3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)
O6 [56] Laitinen et al. 2001 FIN 6,279 0 31 Father´s occupation
5 levels b
Measured height, weight at 14y6, at 31y2 β (SE) social class VI vs. IIIb m 0.05 (0.16)
w 0.48 (0.17)
4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 1)
         Self-reported weight and height; IOTF cut-points for obesity in youth; BMI ≥30 kg/m² in adulthood
Difference in age at onset of obesity
   3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 1)
O7 [68] Lee et al. 2009 USA
Add Health
9,730 12-19 7 Parental education
2 levels </≥high school
measured weight, height;2,3 become obese, stay obes β (SE) stay obese m 0.467(0.147)**
w 0.481(0.152)**
4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)
O8 [60] Koupil et al. 2007 SE 6,535
(male conscripts)
18.2 (mean) 18 Maternal education
3 levels;c (register data)
Measured height, weight at 18y.² OR (CI) lowest vs. highest 1.03 (0.6; 1.8) 4 (D = 1; R = 0; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)
O9 [57] Salsberry et al. 2007 USA
NLSCM
3,368 0 13 Maternal education
metric- number of years.
Measured height, weight.5,7 OR (CI) 0.97 (0.9; 1.03) 5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)
O10 [58] Dubois et al. 2006 CDN
QLSCD
1,550 0 4,5 Maternal education
4 levelsd
Measured weight, height.5 OR (CI) lowest vs. highest 1.4 (0.8; 2.4) 5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)
O11 [61] Strauss et al. 1999 USA
NLSY
2,913 0-8 6 Maternal education
3 levelsf
Measured height, weight; obesity incidence6 RR (CI) lowest vs. highest 0.96 (0.7; 1.4) 4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 1; C = 1)
[69] Ballistreri et al. 2009 USA
ECLS-K
12,696 5-6 (Kindergarten) 6 Parental education
3 levelsg
Measured height, weight, BMI growth curve models β (SE) for growth in BMI 0.007* (0.003) 4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)
[59] Howe et al. 2010 UK
ALSPAC
7,772 0 15-16 Maternal education
4 levelsh
DXA- assessed total fat mass SII (CI) m 1.21 (1.08;1.36)
w 1.34 (1.23;1.46)
4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)
         Self-reported weight and height; IOTF cut-points for obesity in youth; BMI > = 30 in adulthood
Difference in age at onset of obesity
   3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 1)
O12 [62] Gordon-Larson et al. 2007 USA
Add Health
14,654 12-19 7 Family income
</≥ 26.000 US$
Self-reported weight and height;2,3 age at onset of obesity β (CI)
onset low vs. high income
-2.6 (-3.8; -1.3)** 3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)
O13 [57] Salsberry et al. 2007 USA
NLSCM
3,368 0 13 Family income
lifetime and 1990 per capita income in US$
Measured height and weight;5,7 OR (CI) 1.0 (0.99; 1.00) 5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)
O14 [58] Dubois et al. 2006 CDN
QLSCD
1,550 0 4,5 Family income
</≥20000 CN$/y
Measured weight, height; Obesity 5 OR (CI) < vs. ≥ 20000 CN$ 2.5 (1.3; 4.8)** 5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)
O15 [61] Strauss et al. 1999 USA
NLSY
2,913 0-8 6 Family income
intracohortal 15th/85th percentile
Measured height, weight; obesity incidence6 RR (CI) lowest vs. highest family income 2.8 (1.4; 5.8) 4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 1; C = 1)
O16 [69] Ballistreri et al. 2009 USA
ECLS-K
12,696 5-6 (Kindergarten) 6 Log transformed yearly Family income in US$ Measured height, weight, BMI growth curve models β (SE) for growth in BMI 0.003 (0.001) 4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)
  1. GLOBE: Gezondheid en LevensOmstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken (health and living conditions of the population of Eindhoven and its surroundings)
  2. EHYS: Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study
  3. HBSC: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children
  4. NLSY: The National Longitudinal Surveys
  5. ECLS-K: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999
  6. ALSPAC: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
  7. NLSCM: National Longitudinal Surveys Child-Mother files
  8. QLSCD: Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec
  9. SII: Slope Index of Inequalities (linear regression coefficient and CI presented) [93]
  10. Β: Beta Coefficient
  11. HR: Hazard Ratio
  12. OR: Odds Ratio
  13. RR: Relative Risk
  14. CI: Confidence Interval
  15. SE: Standard Error
  16. 1 D Duration (1 = birth cohort or starting in youth)
  17. R Recruitment (1 = population-based or school-based representing regional population at certain age)
  18. E Explanatory variables, (1 = risk factor assessment for CSES directly in parents, not retrospectively in adults)
  19. O Outcome (1 = measured BMI and age-specific cut off scores for obesity/overweight criteria (extra-cohortal definition))
  20. C Controlling (1 = adult SES, birth weight or baseline BMI)
  21. ²overweight/obesity criteria for adults: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²/≥ 30 kg/m²;
  22. ³ overweight/obesity criteria: IOTF age specific BMI cut points
  23. 4overweight BMI cut points according to Cole (BMJ, 2000)
  24. 5 age-specific 85/95th percentile (CDC growth charts)
  25. 6 age-specific 85/95th percentile, (NHANES)
  26. 7 partly self-reported height, weight with controlling for method of data collection
  27. a I+II skilled nonmanual; III unskilled nonmanual; skilled manual IV+V semi- unskilled manual
  28. b I+II professional; III skilled workers IV unskilled workers; V farmers. UK Regristrar General's Standard Occupational Classification
  29. c elementary; secondary; post-secondary
  30. d No high-school; high school; college; university degree
  31. e No high-school; high school; some college; college graduate, professional degree
  32. f less than high school; high school only; college or professional
  33. g less than high-school; some college; college
  34. h < O-level, O-level, A-level, >A-level
  35. m = men; w = women
  36. ** p < 0.01/* p < 0.05