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Table 2 Adaptive coping styles in patients with chronic pain diseases

From: Adaptive coping strategies in patients with chronic pain conditions and their interpretation of disease

   TDH TMH SIAH PoA CWoL RIC Escape
   External locus of control Internal locus of control /
all Mean 56.34 79.28 75.16 70.64 72.16 50.43 52.00
  SD 32.56 20.18 21.07 16.75 17.17 26.33 27.04
Gender         
women Mean 57.60 79.03 75.65 71.20 72.56 51.11 51.89
  SD 32.20 20.70 21.52 16.76 17.03 26.67 26.91
men Mean 51.94 80.15 73.42 68.65 70.77 48.09 49.12
  SD 33.52 18.33 19.44 16.64 17.65 25.06 26.17
   F-value   2.834 .291 1.067 2.240 1.046 1.199 1.614
   p-value   0.093 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
age         
<30 years Mean 41.03 72.06 67.03 69.26 65.88 51.96 52.40
  SD 35.03 18.18 18.09 13.62 17.64 25.98 18.14
31-40 years Mean 41.94 79.17 75.22 66.94 65.81 48.97 51.89
  SD 30.59 14.19 20.04 16.67 19.59 26.57 26.89
41-50 years Mean 50.60 73.97 76.02 68.91 70.32 48.70 45.97
  SD 33.05 20.81 16.82 18.37 16.68 26.81 27.37
51-60 years Mean 57.82 81.77 76.59 71.35 73.97 51.12 54.64
  SD 29.65 16.39 20.85 15.33 15.20 25.71 26.92
61-70 years Mean 63.77 85.34 75.06 71.98 74.28 52.40 54.46
  SD 31.35 20.16 23.51 18.09 17.87 26.59 27.65
>70 years Mean 73.22 79.05 74.97 74.03 76.73 49.35 53.36
  SD 29.66 26.93 26.01 15.41 15.98 27.03 27.93
   F-value   10.356 5.208 1.196 1.764 4.844 0.319 1.755
   p-value   <0.0001 <0.0001 n.s. n.s. 0.002 n.s. n.s.
Underlying disease         
spine-associated pain syndromes Mean 57.08 80.06 74.65 67.69 71.16 47.52 54.81
  SD 31.78 19.02 21.00 17.41 17.67 27.64 21.88
fibromyalgia Mean 57.40 80.18 76.77 67.92 73.41 50.22 56.08
  SD 29.09 18.70 18.48 16.22 13.12 26.17 27.44
polyarthritis/-arthrosis Mean 59.91 81.67 81.39 73.06 75.36 48.86 50.95
  SD 27.73 19.96 16.43 14.30 13.67 23.82 27.25
migraine/headache Mean 50.42 77.85 73.07 68.40 69.40 44.83 57.54
  SD 32.38 20.45 24.62 15.10 21.63 30.98 30.15
chronic inflammatory bowel diseases Mean 33.60 71.92 69.53 65.97 65.13 53.08 50.05
  SD 37.65 21.71 26.79 13.90 19.30 20.13 27.63
cancer (accompanied by pain) Mean 57.74 73.21 77.08 71.03 72.86 50.60 51.09
  SD 30.72 27.68 18.78 13.08 17.51 26.90 26.39
amputations (accompanied by pain) Mean 69.77 89.53 76.63 78.95 81.03 57.97 46.00
  SD 29.49 18.17 22.54 15.22 15.23 29.38 27.50
pain associated with psycho-physical exhaustion Mean 51.35 71.39 69.47 69.58 72.12 55.93 45.74
  SD 32.39 17.06 23.14 16.45 18.23 21.47 27.95
other pain syndromes Mean 56.63 78.60 74.40 71.60 71.34 50.73 52.78
  SD 33.50 20.54 21.73 17.45 17.16 26.11 26.77
   F-value   2.649 2.490 1.082 2.398 2.354 0.816 0.894
   p-value   0.007 0.012 n.s. 0.015 0.017 n.s. n.s.
Pain treatment         
Pain outpatient Clinic Mean 61.82 86.96 78.37 71.21 73.25 54.36 60.31
  SD 31.73 13.94 18.71 17.70 16.49 26.54 25.50
Rehabilitation Clinic Mean 60.76 82.77 71.45 70.19 75.64 50.78 55.97
  SD 29.27 18.83 22.12 17.39 15.35 25.66 27.49
Mind-Body/CAM Training Programs Mean 51.94 73.84 74.71 70.50 70.50 48.49 46.31
  SD 33.35 21.96 21.97 15.87 17.61 26.13 26.35
   F-value   6.048 25.536 3.568 0.143 4.283 2.474 15.674
   p-value   0.003 <0.0001 0.029 n.s. 0.014 0.085 <0.0001
  1. Scores > 50% represent a positive attitude (agreement), while scores < 50% represent a negative attitude (disagreement). Deviations > 15% from the mean were highlighted
  2. Abbreviations: TDH - Trust in Divine Help; TMH - Trust in Medical Help; SIAH - Search for Information/Alternative Help; PoA - Positive Attitudes; CWoL - Conscious Way of Living; RIC - Reappraisal: Illness as Chance; Esc -Escape from Illness