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Table 4 Univariate analysis of variables associated with functional limitation

From: Prevalence and correlates of physical disability and functional limitation among community dwelling older people in rural Malaysia, a middle income country

Variables Functional limitation
present
Functional limitation
absent
Unadjusted
prevalence ratio
  n (%) n (%) PR (95% CI)
Age group       
60-64 15 (5.4) 265 (94.6) 1.0 (Reference)
65-69 21 (12.4) 149 (87.7) 4.1 (3.1, 5.4)
70-74 36 (24.2) 113 (75.8) 8.2 (5.4, 12.6)
≥ 75 65 (46.8) 74 (53.2) 16.7 (9.5, 29.2)
Sex       
Male 41 (14.5) 241 (85.5) 1.0 (Reference)
Female 96 (21.1) 360 (78.9) 2.1 (1.17, 4.1)
Ethnic Group       
Malays 107 (19.3) 448 (80.7) 1.0 (Reference)
Chinese 22 (20.4) 86 (79.6) 0.6 (0.4, 1.0)
Indians and Others 8 (10.7) 67 (89.3) 0.5 (0.2, 1.1)
Education level       
Secondary and Tertiary education 8 (9.6) 75 (90.4) 1.0 (Reference)
Primary education 78 (16.6) 391 (83.4) 2.8 (1.7, 4.6)
No formal education 51 (27.4) 135 (72.6) 4.6 (2.1, 9.9)
Marital status       
Married 80 (17.0) 391 (83.0) 1.0 (Reference)
Widowed 57 (21.9) 203 (78.1) 1.4 (0.8, 2.4)
Others (single and divorced) 0 (0) 7 (100.0) 1.7 (0.7, 3.8)
Living Arrangements       
Living with others 125 (19.1) 528 (80.9) 1.0 (Reference)
Living alone 12 (14.1) 73 (85.9) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2)
Social support       
Not at risk of isolation 98 (16.7) 488 (83.3) 1.0 (Reference)
At risk of isolation 39 (25.7) 113 (74.3) 1.5 (1.1, 2.1)
Presence of chronic disease       
None 11 (4.5) 234 (95.5) 1.0 (Reference)
One chronic disease 92 (22.9) 309 (77.1) 5.9 (3.9, 8.7)
More than one chronic disease 34 (36.9) 58 (63.1) 14.2 (7.9, 25.4)
Diabetes       
No 69 (13.0) 463 (87.0) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 68 (33.0) 138 (67.0) 2.5 (1.9, 3.4)
Arthritis       
No 82 (13.8) 512 (86.2) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 55 (38.2) 89 (61.8) 2.8 (2.1, 3.7)
Stroke       
No 123 (17.5) 582 (82.5) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 14 (42.4) 19 (57.6) 2.4 (1.6, 3.7)
Depressive Symptomology       
No 81 (14.0) 496 (86.0) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 56 (34.8) 105 (65.2) 2.5 (1.8, 3.3)
Presenting visual acuity       
Normal 89 (15.4) 490 (84.6) 1.0 (Reference)
Mild to moderate visual impairment 39 (31.0) 87 (69.0) 2.4 (1.6, 3.7)
Blind 9 (27.3) 24 (72.7) 3.8 (2.0, 7.1)
BMI (weight/height2)       
Normal 51 (19.6) 209 (80.4) 1.0 (Reference)
Underweight 65 (20.4) 254 (79.6) 0.7 (0.5, 1.0)
Overweight 18 (12.5) 126 (87.5) 0.7 (0.3, 1.1)