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Table 3 Univariate analysis of variables associated with 10 items ADL dependence

From: Prevalence and correlates of physical disability and functional limitation among community dwelling older people in rural Malaysia, a middle income country

Variables Physical Disability
present
Physical Disability
absent
Unadjusted prevalence ratio
  n (%) n (%) PR (95% CI)
Age group       
60-64 17 (6.1) 263 (93.9) 1.0 (Reference)
65-69 39 (22.9) 131 (77.1) 3.3 (2.7, 4.0)
70-74 57 (38.3) 92 (61.7) 5.9 (4.4, 8.1)
≥75 69 (49.6) 70 (50.4) 10.8 (7.1, 16.3)
Sex       
Male 58 (20.6) 224 (79.4) 1.0 (Reference)
Female 124 (27.2) 332 (72.8) 1.8 (1.1, 3.0)
Ethnic Group       
Malays 135 (24.3) 420 (75.7) 1.00
Chinese 25 (23.2) 83 (76.8) 1.3 (0.8, 2.1)
Indians and Others 22 (29.3) 53 (70.7) 1.4 (0.7, 3.0)
Education level       
Secondary and Tertiary education 21 (25.3) 62 (74.7) 1.0 (Reference)
Primary education 93 (19.8) 376 (80.2) 2.0 (1.3, 3.2)
No formal education 68 (36.6) 118 (63.4) 2.8 (1.4, 5.7)
Marital status       
Married 112 (23.8) 359 (76.2) 1.0 (Reference)
Widowed 69 (26.5) 191 (73.5) 1.2 (0.7, 1.9)
Others (single and divorced) 1 (14.3) 6 (85.7) 1.3 (0.6, 2.6)
Living Arrangements       
Living with others 158 (24.2) 495 (28.2) 1.0 (Reference)
Living alone 24 (28.2) 61 (71.8) 1.2 (0.8, 1.7)
Social support       
Not at risk of isolation 136 (23.2) 450 (76.8) 1.0 (Reference)
At risk of isolation 46 (30.3) 106 (69.7) 1.3 (1.0, 1.7)
Presence of chronic disease       
None 32 (13.1) 213 (86.9) 1.0 (Reference)
One chronic disease 101 (25.2) 300 (74.8) 4.1 (2.9, 6.0)
More than one chronic disease 49 (53.3) 43 (46.7) 8.4 (4.8, 14.5)
Diabetes       
No 95 (17.9) 437 (82.1) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 87 (42.2) 119 (57.8) 2.4 (1.9, 3.0)
Arthritis       
No 125 (21.0) 469 (79.0) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 57 (39.6) 87 (60.4) 1.9 (1.5, 2.4)
Stroke       
No 166 (23.6) 539 (76.4) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 16 (48.5) 17 (51.5) 2.1 (1.4, 3.0)
Depressive Symptomology       
No 122 (21.1) 455 (78.9) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 60 (37.3) 101 (62.7) 1.8 (1.4, 2.3)
Presenting visual acuity       
Normal 130 (22.5) 449 (77.5) 1.0 (Reference)
Mild to moderate visual impairment 42 (33.3) 84 (66.7) 1.7 (1.1, 2.5)
Blind 10 (30.3) 23 (69.7) 2.1 (1.2, 3.8)
BMI (weight/height2)       
Normal 65 (25.0) 195 (75.0) 1.0 (Reference)
Underweight 79 (24.8) 240 (75.2) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4)
Overweight 35 (24.3) 109 (75.7) 1.0 (0.6, 1.6)