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Table 3 Most used methods in YouRAction, their parameters for use and examples of strategies

From: Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities

Determinant Technique/Method (theory) Parameters for use Strategy
Perceived environment Facilitation   Providing sports clubs on an interactive map, tailored around the adolescents' home;
  Facilitation   Providing walking and cycling routes
    Providing visual representation of walking and cycling possibilities in neighbourhood
  Active learning   Adding places to be active on maps
Knowledge Provide information about behaviour-health link (PAPM) Adding helpful information Adolescents first fill in a practice quiz, which gives feedback. Subsequently they fill in a quiz which will be marked.
  Advance organizers Schematic representations of the content or guided to what is to be learned Schematic on levels of PA, with colours
Attitude Modeling Reinforcement of the model Web movie with models who decided to be active. Models smile and name the pro's they experienced of activity.
  Provide information on consequences (TPB, SCT) Investigation of the current beliefs of the individual before choosing the belief on which to intervene Feedback based on pros and cons of specific behaviour
Awareness Provide information about behaviour-health link (PAPM) Messages should be presented as individual, undeniable, on the same dimension, congruent with actual risk, and cumulative rather than for one occasion messages presented with qualitative and quantitative examples Feedback based on PA questionnaire on overall PA and sub-behaviours. Feedback consists of individual and normative feedback in text and graphs.
Subjective norm Building skills for resistance to social pressure (SCT) Skill building for refusal skills; commitment to earlier intention; relating intended behaviour to values; psychological inoculation against pressure Simulation of role-plays by making use of interactive web movies.
Self-efficacy/PBC Prompt barrier identification (SCT) Choosing barriers which are important to adolescents List of barriers in which adolescents can select barriers
  Model or demonstrate the behaviour (SCT)/Set graded tasks (SCT) Subskill demonstration, instruction and enactment with feedback Web movies and comics in which in steps a solution to a problem is presented.
  Relapse prevention (relapse prevention therapy) Identification of high-risk situations and practice of coping response Selection of barriers to be active in a predefined list. Followed by guided practice to cope with barrier and a homework assignment to practice this
Planning Prompt specific goal setting (CT) Commitment to the goal; goals that are difficult but achievable Setting goals using a step-by-step application.
  Relapse prevention (relapse prevention therapy) Identification of high-risk situations and practice of coping response Selection of barriers. Followed by form to fill in strategy to overcome barrier.
  Prompt practice (OC) Encourage adolescents to carry out their plan Practice in achieving goals for one week. Daily feedback on achievement and barriers that occurred during that day
Relapse prevention Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour (CT)/Provide feedback on performance (CT) Can use feedback and confrontation; however raising awareness must be quickly followed by increase in problem-solving ability and self-efficacy After goal setting, daily monitoring of behaviour with feedback on achievement.
    Daily feedback on progress to achieve goal. If adolescents fail, feedback makes them aware that behavioural change goes hand in hand with occasional failure.
  Agree on behavioural contract Creating of behavioural contract which will be signed by adolescent and teacher Step-by-step creation of behavioural contract, containing goal, plan to achieve this goal and reward when achieving this goal. This control can be printed to be signed by adolescent and teacher
  Prompt review of behavioural goals (CT) First guided monitoring, then self-monitoring. Feedback based on this self-monitoring in terms of behavioural goal. Guided monitoring after second lesson; adolescents monitor their achievements. After third lesson they will be stimulated to this by their own in their diary. Based on these results resetting behavioural goals or progress with current goal.
  1. TPB = theory of planned behaviour; SCT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory, PAPM = precaution adoption process model;