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Table 6 Risk of elevated GGT with obesity, metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk cluster by drinking status

From: Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

  Non-drinkers (n = 791) Moderate drinkers (n = 552) Risky Drinkers † (n = 1183)
  Crude OR Adj. OR* Crude OR Adj. OR* Crude OR Adj. OR*
Abdominal Obesity †
Normal 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Overweight 1.4 (0.6-3.5) 1.5 (0.6-3.9) 1.5 (0.8-2.9) 1.9 (0.9-3.8) 1.8 (1.3-2.5) 3.2 (2.2-4.7)
Obese 2.0 (1.0-4.0) 2.6 (1.1-5.7) 1.7 (1.03-2.9) 4.5 (2.3-8.6) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 4.2 (2.9-5.9)
BMI
<25 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
25-30 2.0 (1.1-3.8) 2.0 (1.01-3.9) 2.1 (1.2-3.6) 3.0 (1.6-5.6) 1.5 (1.2-2.0) 2.4 (1.7-3.3)
30+ 1.5 (0.8-2.8) 1.8 (0.9-3.6) 1.6 (0.9- 2.8) 2.7 (1.4-5.2) 1.4 (1.0-1.8) 2.9 (2.1-4.1)
Metabolic syndrome †
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 2.3 (1.4-3.8) 2.4 (1.3-4.1) 2.5 (1.6-3.9) 2.8 (1.7-4.6) 2.8 (2.2-3.5) 3.7 (2.8-5.0)
MR Cluster profile†
Favorable 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Adverse 1.9 (1.2-3.1) 1.6 (0.9-2.8) 3.0 (1.9-4.8) 2.8 (1.6-4.9) 5.1 (3.9-6.6) 4.9 (3.7-6.7)
  1. *Adjusted by age, sex, and ethnicity, smoking, and PA level. † Risky drinking was defined as > 6 drinks on any occasion or >4 drinks per day in males and >4 drinks on any occasion or >2 drinks per day in female in the week prior to the survey. Abdominal obesity defined using WHO WC gender specific criteria: overweight being WC of 80-88 cm in females and 94-102 cm in males, while obesity being WC ≥88 cm in females and 102 cm in males. Metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria: waist circumference (≥94 cm in males and ≥80 for females), raised triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), reduced HDL (<1.03 in males or <1.29 in females), raised blood pressure (systolic >130 mmHg or diastolic≥85 mmHg), and plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L). Adverse MR (metabolic risk) cluster profile was obtained by EM cluster analysis.