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Table 5 Alcohol drinking and metabolic risk versus elevated GGT (GGT ≥ 50 U/L) by gender

From: Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

  Female Male
  Crude OR Adj. OR* Crude OR Adj. OR*
Alcohol drinking
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 2.7 (1.9-3.8) 3.5 (2.3-5.2) 5.4 (3.6-8.0) 5.9 (4.0-9.9)
Alcohol risk
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Moderate 1.0 (0.6-1.9) 1.5 (0.9-2.6) 2.8 (1.8-4.5) 3.5 (2.1-5.9)
Risky 4.1 (2.9-5.8) 5.2 (3.4-8.0) 6.7 (4.4-10.0) 8.5 (5.3-13.5)
Metabolic syndrome †
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 2.7 (2.0-3.7) 3.1 (2.2-4.5) 2.1 (1.6-2.6) 1.8 (1.3-2.5)
MR cluster profile †
Favorable 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Adverse 2.9 (2.1-3.9) 3.2 (2.2-4.7) 3.0 (2.3-3.8) 3.2 (2.3-4.4)
  1. * Adjusted for age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, and PA level. † Risky drinking was defined as > 6 drinks on any occasion or >4 drinks per day in males and >4 drinks on any occasion or >2 drinks per day in female in the week prior to the survey. Metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria: waist circumference (≥94 cm in males and ≥80 for females), raised triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), reduced HDL (<1.03 in males or <1.29 in females), raised blood pressure (systolic >130 mmHg or diastolic≥85 mmHg), and plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L). Adverse MR (metabolic risk) cluster profile was obtained by EM cluster analysis.