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Table 4 Alcohol drinking and metabolic risk versus elevated GGT (GGT ≥ 50 U/L) by ethnicity

From: Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

  Aboriginal TSI
  Crude OR Adj. OR* Crude OR Adj. OR*
Alcohol Drinking
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 4.9 (3.6-6.7) 5.6 (3.9-8.0) 3.3 (2.1- 5.1) 2.2 (1.3-3.7)
Alcohol risk
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Moderate 2.1 (1.4-3.2) 2.7 (1.7-4.1) 1.9 (1.1-3.2) 1.4 (0.8-2.5)
Risky 6.3 (4.6-8.7) 7.6 (5.2-11.1) 4.5 (2.9-7.1) 3.4 (1.9-5.9)
Metabolic syndrome †
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 2.1 (1.7-2.6) 2.7 (2.0-3.6) 2.8 (2.0-4.0) 2.2 (1.4-3.4)
MR cluster profile †
Favorable 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Adverse 3.3 (2.6-4.1) 3.4 (2.5-4.5) 3.9 (2.7-5.7) 3.2 (2.0-5.0)
  1. * Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, and PA level. † Risky drinking was defined as > 6 drinks on any occasion or >4 drinks per day in males and >4 drinks on any occasion or >2 drinks per day in female in the week prior to the survey. Metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria: waist circumference (≥94 cm in males and ≥80 for females), raised triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), reduced HDL (<1.03 in males or <1.29 in females), raised blood pressure (systolic >130 mmHg or diastolic≥85 mmHg), and plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L). Adverse MR (metabolic risk) cluster profile was obtained by EM cluster analysis.