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Table 2 Demographic and health risk factor status, by GGT category in Indigenous adults

From: Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

  GGT<50 U/L (n = 1876) GGT≥50 U/L (n = 657) P*
  Mean or No. 95% CI No. (%) 95% CI  
Age (Years) (SD) 36.6 (16.3) 35.8-37.3 39.3 (12.5) 38.4- 40.2 <0.01
Male (%) 779 (41.5) 39.3-43.8 440 (67.0) 63.4-70.6 <0.01
Aborigines (%) 1093 (58.3) 56.0-60.5 493 (75.0) 71.7-78.4) <0.01
WC (SD) 94.3 (17.2) 93.5- 95.1 97.4 (14.5) 96.3-98.5 <0.01
Abdominal obesity (%) †      0.09
   Normal 655 (34.9) 32.8-37.1 208 (31.7) 28.1-35.2  
   Overweight 300 (16.0) 14.3-17.7 127 (19.3) 16.3-22.4  
   Obesity 921 (49.1 ) 46.8-51.4 322 (49.1) 45.2-52.8  
BMI (SD) 27.5 (7.2) 27.2- 27.9 27.5 (6.5) 27.0- 28.0 0.45
BMI      0.01
   <25 760 (40.5) 38.3-42.7 244 (37.1) 33.4-40.8  
   25-30 480 (25.6) 23.6-27.6 207 (31.5) 28.0-35.1  
   30+ 636 (33.9) 31.8-36.0 206 (31.4) 27.8-34.9  
SBP (SD) 128.2 (19.7) 127.3-129.1 135.4 (18.4) 134.0-136.8 <0.01
DBP (SD) 69.4 (13.1) 68.8-70.0 77.3 (13.2) 76.3- 78.3 <0.01
HDL (SD) 1.14 (0.3) 1.13-1.15 1.19 (0.4) 1.16-1.22 <0.01
Smoking (%) 982 (52.7) 50.4-55.0 460 (70.5) 66.9-73.9 <0.01
Drinking (%) 1117 (61.7) 59.5-64.0 565 (87.7) 85.2-90.3 <0.01
Risky drinking † (%) * 679 (60.8) 57.9-6365 466 (82.5) 79.3-85.6 <0.01
Physically active † 467 (24.9) 22.9-26.9 130 (19.8) 16.7-26.8 0.01
FPG (SD) 5.5 (2.5) 5.4-5.6 6.2 (2.9) 5.9- 6.4 <0.01
Diabetes (%) 236 (12.6) 11.1-14.1 133 (20.2) 17.2-23.3 <0.01
Trigs (SD) ‡* 1.5 (1.1) 1.4-1.52 2.7 (2.0) 2.5- 2.8 <0.01
Metabolic syndrome (%) † 683 (36.4) 34.2-38.6 346 (52.6) 48.8-56.5 <0.01
Adverse MR Cluster profile (%) † 570 (32.8) 30.6-35.0 384 (60.0) 56.2-63.8 <0.01
  1. *significant difference of <0.05 between normal (<50 U/L) and elevated (≥50 U/L) GGT, using Chi square tests for categorical variables, t-test (for continuous variables with normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney rank-sum test for continuous variables with non-normal distribution‡. † Abdominal obesity defined using WHO WC gender specific criteria: overweight being WC of 80-88 cm in females and 94-102 cm in males, while obesity being WC ≥88 cm in females and 102 cm in males. Risky drinking was defined as > 6 drinks on any occasion or >4 drinks per day in males and >4 drinks on any occasion or >2 drinks per day in female in the week prior to the survey. Physically active, defined by American Heart Association criteria in which "active" means doing moderate to vigorous physical activity for more than 30 min per day for 5 days in the week before the survey. Metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria: waist circumference (≥94 cm in males and ≥80 for females), raised triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), reduced HDL (<1.03 in males or <1.29 in females), raised blood pressure (systolic >130 mmHg or diastolic≥85 mmHg), and plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L). Adverse MR (metabolic risk) cluster profile was obtained by EM cluster analysis. WC is waist circumference, Trigs is serum triglycerides, SBP is systolic blood pressure, DBP is diastolic blood pressure, HDL is high density lipoprotein cholesterol, FPG is fasting plasma glucose.