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Table 3 Relationships between cigarette smoking and SHS exposure in lifetime status and the severity of COPD according to GOLD criteria.

From: Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study

Variables No COPD (n = 230) Mild COPD (n = 129) Moderate COPD (n = 58)
  N (%) N (%) AOR (95%CI)a PAR (%) N (%) AOR (95%CI)a PAR (%)
Cigarette smoking/SHS status        
   Non-smoker 90 (39.1) 32 (24.8) 1   9 (15.5) 1  
   Second-hand smoker 133 (57.8) 83 (64.3) 1.76 (1.06-2.93) 26.5 44 (75.9) 3.84 (1.72-8.60)c 56.2
   Smoker 7 (3.0) 14 (10.9) 7.01 (2.52-19.51) 8.9 5 (8.6) 6.49 (1.61-26.15)c 7.3
Cigarette smoking and cumulative SHS exposure (year)        
   Non-smoker 90 (39.1) 32 (24.8) 1   9 (15.5) 1  
   Second-hand smoker        
1 < SHS < 32 73 (31.7) 38 (29.5) 1.48 (0.82-2.68)   20 (34.5) 3.31 (1.36-8.06)c  
SHS ≥ 32 60 (26.1) 45 (34.9) 2.05 (1.16-3.64)b   24 (41.4) 4.43 (1.85-10.60)b,c  
   Smoker 7 (3.0) 14 (10.9) 7.04 (2.53-19.61)   5 (8.6) 6.51 (1.61-26.32)  
  1. aAOR: Adjusting for age, secondhand smoke status, height, education level, cooking status, burning incense and tea consumption.
  2. bTrend test from Non-SHS, 1<32, to SHS 32 years in Mild COPD: p = 0.01; and in Moderate COPD: p < 0.01.
  3. cTrend test from No COPD, Mild COPD, to Moderate COPD in second-hand smoker: p < 0.01 (p < 0.01 in 1<32 years and SHS 32 years); and in smoker: p < 0.01.