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Table 2 Relationships between cigarette smoking and SHS exposure in lifetime status and chronic bronchitis and probable chronic bronchitis according to physician diagnosis and ATS criteria.

From: Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study

Variables No chronic bronchitis (n = 205) Probable chronic bronchitis (n = 182) Chronic bronchitis (n = 33)
  N (%) N (%) AOR (95%CI)a PAR (%) N (%) AOR (95%CI)a PAR (%)
Cigarette smoking/SHS status        
   Non-smoker 76 (37.1) 52 (28.6) 1   4 (12.1) 1  
   Second-hand smoker 121 (59.0) 120 (65.9) 1.57 (1.00-2.45) 23.8 21 (63.6) 3.65 (1.19-11.26)c 47.3
   Smoker 8 (3.9) 10 (5.5) 1.99 (0.72-5.48) 2.6 8 (24.2) 24.81 (5.78-106.38)c 23.2
Cigarette smoking and
cumulative SHS exposure (year)
       
   Non-smoker 76 (37.1) 52 (28.6) 1   4 (12.1) 1  
   Second-hand smoker        
1< SHS < 32 67 (32.7) 53 (29.1) 1.24 (0.74-2.10)   13 (39.4) 4.26 (1.29-14.09)c  
SHS ≥ 32 54 (26.3) 67 (36.8) 1.93 (1.16-3.23)b   8 (24.2) 3.02 (0.85-10.70)b,c  
   Smoker 8 (3.9) 10 (5.5) 2.00 (0.73-5.51)   8 (24.2) 24.74 (5.77-106.15)  
  1. aAOR: Adjusting for age, secondhand smoke status, height, education level, cooking status, burning incense and tea consumption.
  2. bTrend test from non-SHS, 1<32, to SHS 32 years in probable chronic bronchitis: p = 0.01; and in chronic bronchitis: p = 0.12.
  3. cTrend test from no chronic bronchitis, probable chronic bronchitis, to chronic bronchitis in secondhand smokers: p = 0.01 (p = 0.05 in 1<SHS<32 years and p = 0.01 in SHS 32 years); and in smoker: p < 0.01.