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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of chronic bronchitis, probable chronic bronchitis, and no chronic bronchitis according to physician diagnosis and ATS criteria (n = 420)a

From: Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study

Variables Chronic bronchitis
(n = 33)
Probable chronic bronchitis
(n = 182)
No chronic bronchitis
(n = 205)
p-value
Mean (SD)     
Age (yrs) 65.2 (12.3) 64.6 (9.1) 64.5 (9.7) 0.94
Height (cm) 154.5 (4.3) 155.5 (5.7) 155.2 (4.8) 0.59
Weight (kg) 54.0 (10.0) 57.7 (7.5) 58.5 (7.5) 0.01
BMI 22.6 (3.9) 23.9 (3.0) 24.3 (3.1) 0.01
Pulmonary function test     
FEV1 (L) 1.33 (0.52)a 1.51 (0.40) 1.64 (0.48) <0.01
FVC (L) 1.74 (0.58)a 1.94 (0.52) 2.00 (0.62) 0.05
FEV1/FVC (%) 76.1 (17.1)a 78.9 (15.0) 83.8 (15.5) <0.01
N (%)     
Education levels     
   ≥ junior high school 5 (15.2) 32 (17.6) 34 (16.6) 0.67
   primary school 16 (48.5) 93 (51.1) 117 (57.1)  
   illiteracy 12 (36.4) 57 (31.3) 54 (26.3)  
Cigarette smoking     
   no 25 (75.8) 172 (94.5) 197 (96.1) <0.01b
   yes 8 (24.2) 10 (5.5) 8 (3.9)  
Alcohol consumption     
   no 33 (100) 176 (96.7) 200 (97.6) 0.14b
   yes 0 6 (3.4) 5 (2.5)  
Tea consumption     
   no 31 (93.9) 152 (83.5) 164 (80.0) 0.13b
   yes 2 (6.1) 30 (16.5) 41 (20.0)  
Burning incense     
   no 14 (42.4) 81 (44.5) 89 (43.4) 0.96
   yes 19 (57.6) 101 (55.5) 116 (56.6)  
Cooking status     
   no 2 (6.1) 9 (5.0) 6 (2.9) 0.50b
   Yes 31 (93.9) 173 (95.1) 199 (97.1)  
  1. aThree subjects did not have complete lung function test information
  2. bFisher's exact test.