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Table 3 Adjusted risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among deployed male Marines by adverse childhood experiences

From: Do adverse childhood experiences increase the risk of postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder in US Marines?

  Postdeployment PTSDa
Characteristic Prevalence
per 100
HR (95% CI)b
Physical neglect   
   No 2.48 1.00
   Yes 4.58 1.74 (1.17, 2.59)
Physical abuse   
   No 2.70 1.00
   Yes 2.88 0.58 (0.25, 1.32)
Emotional neglect   
   No 2.57 1.00
   Yes 4.80 1.30 (0.78, 2.15)
Emotional abuse   
   No 2.61 1.00
   Yes 3.97 1.30 (0.78, 2.16)
Domestic violence   
   No 2.63 1.00
   Yes 3.59 1.19 (0.75, 1.90)
Sexual abuse   
   No 2.69 1.00
   Yes 4.26 1.13 (0.40, 3.16)
Family history of mental illness or alcohol abuse   
   No 2.72 1.00
   Yes 2.61 0.88 (0.60, 1.29)
Marital status at time of deployment   
   Not married 2.50 1.00
   Married 3.83 1.48 (1.08, 2.04)
AFQT score   
   < 42 (below 25th percentile) 4.29 1.00
   42-54 (25-49th percentile) 2.54 0.60 (0.42, 0.85)
   55-70 (50-74th percentile) 2.60 0.63 (0.44, 0.89)
   > 70 (above 74th percentile) 1.62 0.40 (0.27, 0.60)
Number of deployments   
   1 2.51 1.00
   2-3 6.31 2.33 (1.54, 3.52)
Diagnosed with mental health disorder prior to deployment   
   No 2.63 1.00
   Yes 6.58 2.52 (1.33, 4.77)
  1. Abbreviations: AFQT = Armed Forces Qualification Test; CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard ratio; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder.
  2. aDiagnosed with PTSD after returning from first deployment in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and within 2 years of last deployment. Responders with a PTSD diagnosis prior to first deployment are excluded from this model.
  3. bHR and 95% CI are adjusted for AFQT score, number of deployments, mental health diagnosis prior to deployment, marital status, and ACE categories.