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Table 4 Household smoking, adjusted for infants' sex and age and for study day, and infant cotinine-to-creatinine ratio

From: A descriptive analysis of relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

  Cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (μg/mmol) with log e transformation
  B SE z p> |z| 95% CI
Household smoking       
   Smoking outside the home Ref.      
   Smoking inside the home 1.42 0.33 4.32 < .001 .77 2.07
Infant's sex and age       
   Male Ref.      
   Female .79 0.26 3.01 < .01 .28 1.31
   Age (month) -.03 0.01 -2.02 < .05 -.06 -.00
Study day .03 0.03 1.02 .31 -.03 .08
  1. Generalized estimation equation model to predict the infants' cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (CCR), taking into account cluster correlation within subjects across study days. Model is based on an exchangeable correlation structure for repeated observations within subjects. Predictor variable household smoking was adjusted for infants' age and sex and for study day. Wald chi2 (4) = 40.53, scale parameter = .64. Explained variance of the GEE model was 67.5 percent.