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Table 2 Patient characteristics, admitting hospital and outcomes of pneumonia according to municipality family income, educational level and social class.

From: Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

   Municipality Family Income   Educational level   Social Class  
   (n = 651)   (n = 643)   (n = 511)  
   High MFI Low MFI   ≤ primary ≥secondary   Class I-Vb Class V  
   n = 115 n = 536   n = 542 n = 101   n = 325 n = 186  
   n (%) n (%) p n (%) n (%) p n (%) n (%) p
Sex: male   69 (60.0) 335 (62.5) 0.616 317 (58.5) 82 (81.2) ≤0.001 269 (82.8) 123 (66.1) ≤0.001
Age (years) M (range) 78 (66-96) 76.5 (65-100) 0.075 77 (65-100) 76 (65-94) 0.033 76 (65-96) 78 (65-100) 0.029
Living alone   22 (19.1) 55 (10.3) 0.008 65 (12.0) 12 (11.9) 0.975 37 (11.4) 21 (11.3) 0.974
Alcohol consumption   3 (2.6) 48 (10.7) 0.007 44 (9.5) 7 (7.2) 0.470 35 (12.3) 14 (8.7) 0.245
Smoker or ex-smoker   64 (55.7) 278 (52.2) 0.496 260 (48.1) 77 (76.2) ≤0.001 228 (70.4) 91 (48.9) ≤0.001
Admitting Hospital       ≤0.001      ≤0.001      ≤0.001
  1 102 (88.7) 15 (2.8)   75 (13.8) 42 (41.6)   78 (24.0) 18 (9.7)  
  2 4 (3.5) 159 (29.7)   150 (27.7) 13 (12.9)   104 (32.0) 36 (19.4)  
  3 0 (0) 233 (43.5)   189 (34.9) 36 (35.6)   91 (28.0) 90 (48.4)  
  4 0 (0) 48 (9.0)   44 (8.1) 4 (4.0)   21 (6.5) 16 (8.6)  
  5 9 (7.8) 81 (15.1)   84 (15.5) 6 (5.9)   31 (9.5) 26 (14.0)  
Underlying diseasesa   77 (67.0) 383 (71.5) 0.336 385 (71.0) 67 (66.3) 0.343 238 (73.2) 128 (68.8) 0.287
Heart failure   18 (15.7) 46 (8.6) 0.021 54 (10.0) 10 (9.9) 0.985 33 (10.2) 14 (7.5) 0.323
COPD   26 (22.6) 195 (36.4) 0.005 189 (34.9) 29 (28.7) 0.230 134 (41.2) 64 (34.4) 0.128
PSI RC ≥ 4 54 (73.0) 321 (62.3) 0.075 312 (62.5) 55 (67.1) 0.429 193 (67.2) 103 (59.9) 0.111
Combined antibiotic treatment   58 (50.4) 193 (36.0) 0.004 209 (38.6) 39 (38.6) 0.992 132 (40.6) 65 (34.9) 0.205
Bacteremic pneumoniab   12 (14.5) 43 (13.4) 0.794 43 (13.0) 11 (15.7) 0.551 30 (13.7) 12 (11.0) 0.492
Empyema   5 (4.3) 12 (2.2) 0.200 13 (2.4) 4 (4.0) 0.323 10 (3.1) 4 (2.2) 0.537
Pneumonia outcomes                 
LOS (days) M (range) 8 (3-51) 8 (1-95) 0.464 8 (1-93) 7 (2-95) 0.387 8 (1-95) 8 (2-57) 0.306
Mortality   8 (7.0) 33 (6.2) 0.749 32 (5.9) 5 (5.0) 0.706 22 (6.8) 5 (2.7) 0.047
Readmission c   14 (13.3) 50 (10.0) 0.316 49 (9.7) 15 (15.6) 0.086 34 (11.4) 20 (11.0) 0.827
ICU   19 (16.5) 32 (6.0) ≤0.001 39 (7.2) 9 (8.9) 0.547 28 (8.6) 7 (3.8) 0.037
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or median (range).
  2. Abbreviations: COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; LOS: Length of stay; M: Median; MFI: Municipality Family Income; PSI: Pneumonia Severity Index.; RC: Risk Class.
  3. Notes: a Only underlying diseases with different distribution between two groups of municipality family income, educational level or social class are listed.
  4. b Only 405 patients in whom blood cultures were made were evaluated.
  5. c In order to evaluate readmission, deaths during hospitalization were excluded.