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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes of the study population.

From: Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

   Patients studied n n (%)
Sex: male   651 404 (62.1)
Age (years) M (range) 651 77 (65-100)  
High MFI   651 115 (17.7)
Social class   511   
  I   14 (2.7)
  II   7 (1.4)
  III   47 (9.2)
  IVa   183 (35.8)
  IVb   74 (14.5)
  V   186 (36.4)
Educational level ≥secondary level 643 101 (15.7)
Living alone   651 77 (11.8)
Alcohol consumption   561 51 (9.1)
Smoker or ex-smoker   648 342 (52.8)
Admitting hospital   651   
  1   117 (18.0)
  2   163 (25.0)
  3   233 (35.8)
  4   48 (7.4)
  5   90 (13.8)
Underlying diseases   651 460 (70.7)
COPD    221 (33.9)
Diabetes mellitus    130 (20.0)
Solid or haematologic neoplasia    96 (14.8)
Disabling neurological disease    86 (13.2)
Heart failure    64 (9.8)
Aggressive therapy a    48 (7.4)
Liver disease    21 (3.2)
Other diseases b    29 (4.4)
Pneumonia Severity Index   589   
  Risk class 1   2 (0.3)
  Risk class 2   39 (6.6)
  Risk class 3   173 (29.4)
  Risk class 4   286 (48.6)
  Risk class 5   89 (15.1)
Combined antibiotic treatment   651 251 (38.6)
Bacteremic pneumonia   405 55 (13.6)
Empyema   651 17 (2.6)
Pneumonia outcomes     
LOS (days): M (range) 651 8 (1-95)  
Mortality in the first 30 days   651 41 (6.3)
Readmission c   604 64 (10.6)
ICU admission   651 51 (7.8)
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or median (range).
  2. Abbreviations: COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; LOS: length of stay; M: Median; MFI: Municipality Family Income.
  3. Notes: a Aggressive therapy: radiotherapy or corticosteroids therapy or immunosuppressive therapy.
  4. b Other diseases: Autoimmune disease or chronic renal failure in dialysis.
  5. c In order to evaluate readmission, deaths during hospitalization were excluded.