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Table 3 Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and urban-rural prevalence of hypertension

From: Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review

Study references Population type Mean Age in years Prevalence ≥140/90 Crude Prevalence ≥160/95 Mean systolic BP Mean diastolic BP
    urban rural urban rural Male Female Total Male Female Total
Pobee et al 1979 [2224, 74] Urban public servants nr 8.0 nr 8.0 -       
Pobee et al 1977 [24, 32] rural nrk nr nr - 4.5 123.8 ± 19.7 122.0 ± 21.0 122.5 69.2 ± 13.5 68.8 ± 12.7 69
Ikeme et al 1978 [21, 22, 37, 41] urban nrl 25.5 - 13.1 - 127.7 ± 18.7 124.6 ± 20.2 125.9 ± 9.6 80.5 ± 13.0 78.9 ± 13.9 79.6 ± 13.6
Chukwuemeka et al 1983 [20, 74] urban nr nr nr 13.0 - 133.6 ± 19.9 136.7 ± 22.9 135.2 ± 21.4 85.5 ± 11.3 86.1 ± 13.4 85.8 ± 12.4
Hesse 1998 [30] Urban Prison officers = 39.8 ± 9.5; prisoners = 31.1 ± 10.3 nr nr officers = 36.4; prisoners = 2.9 - officers = 140.9 ± 25.1; prisoners = 123.3 ± 14.4 - nr officers = 91.3 ± 16.7; prisoners = 77.2 ± 10.4 - nr
Amoah 2003 [33] Rural; urban 44.3 ± 14.7 nr nr nr nr 129.0 ± 22.2 128.9 ± 26.7 128.9 ± 25.0 75.1 ± 13.0 74.7 ± 14.1 74.9 ± 13.7
Addo et al 2006 [27] rural 42.4 ± 18.6 - 25.4 nr 15.2 125.4 ± 20.9 128.5 ± 27.6 127.5 ± 25.8 74.5 ± 14.2 73.9 ± 14.4 74.0 ± 14.3
Burket 2006 [35] rural 41.8 h - 32.8 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cappucio et al 2004 [36, 75] Rural; semi-urban 54.7 ± 11.3 32.9 24.1 nr nr 126.3 ± 24.4 125.1 ± 27.0 125.5 ± 26.1 75.8 ± 13.7 73.5 ± 13.5 74.4 ± 13.6
Escalona et al 2004 [18] urban nr 26.8 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Hill et al 2007 [29, 44] Urban women 46.8 ± 18.0 48.0 - nr nr - upright: 139.4 ± 27.5; supine 141.2 ± 28.0 mmHg upright: 139.4 ± 27.5; supine 141.2 ± 28.0 mmHg - upright: 86.4 ± 15.1; supine 87.6 ± 15.3 mmHg upright: 86.4 ± 15.1; supine 87.6 ± 15.3 mmHg
Agyeman et al 2006 [28, 42] Rural; urban 35.9 31.1 27.0 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Addo et al 2008 [31] Urban civil servants 44.0 ± 10.1 30.2 - nr nr 131.5 121.5 128.5 80.0 77.0 79.0
Owiredu et al 2008 [19] Urban church attendees 41.6 ± 13.4 SBP = 24.0; DBP = 20.6 - nr nr 117.1 ± 15.7 126.4 ± 21.8 123.6 ± 20.5 72.9 ± 10.3 77.7 ± 13.5 76.2 ± 12.8
Kunutsor & Powles 2009 [34] rural 37.8 ± 14.1   19.2    124.3 ± 18.7 122.1 ± 22.0 122.9 ± 20.9 69.9 ± 12.1 72.1 ± 12.4 71.3 ± 12.3
Mensa-Wilmot 2003 [26] rural 36.0 ± 14.6i nr SBP = 6.2; DBP = 4.5 nr nr mean SPB in 45+y group = 119.9 ± 17.6 mean SPB in 45+y group = 116.1 ± 15.8 All ages = 113; mean SPB in 45+y group = 117.6 ± 16.6 Mean DPB in 45+y group = 78.3 ± 13.5 Mean SPB in 45+y group = 74.5 ± 10.7 All ages = 73.7; Mean DPB in 45+y group = 76.0 ± 18.0
Akufo 2008 [25] urban factory workers 34.5j 22.0 - nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
  1. Nr = not reported