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Table 2 Blood pressure measurement techniques in epidemiological studies on hypertension in Ghana

From: Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review

Study references

Personnel taking BP

No. of visits

Interval between visits

Frequency of readings per visit

Initial rest time (mins)

Interval between multiple readings

Reading used in analysis

cuff size

Posture

Part of body on which BP taken

Device

Pobee et al 1979 [2224, 74]

nr

1 -2; If 2nd BP reading higher than that defined for age, BP re-taken at a later visit

24 hours

1 - 3

nr

10 mins

1st or 3rd BP reading

nr

seated

right arm

manual

Pobee et al 1977 [24, 32]

2 field staff

1

-

3

5-10

nr

Mean of three readings

14 cm wide cuff

seated

right arm

manual

Ikeme et al 1978 [21, 22, 37, 41]

trained nurses

1

-

1 - 3; BP repeated twice if BP > 160/95 mmHg

5

10 mins

Initial BP

two cuff sizes 12 × 10 cm, 14 × 17 cm

seated

right arm

Manual

Chukwuemeka et al 1983 [20, 74]

trained nurses

1

-

As in Ikeme et al 1978[21]

5

nr

nr

two cuff sizes 12 × 10 cm, 14 × 17 cm

seated

right arm

manual

Hesse 1998 [30]

4 medical officers

1 - 2; BP re-taken at a later visit if BP > 140/90 mmHg

1 month

3

5

30 secs

Mean of latter 3 readings

appropriate cuff size

seated

right arm

manual

Amoah 2003 [33]

3 nurses

1

-

2

≥ 10

1 min

Mean of two readings

appropriate cuff size

seated

right arm

manual

Addo et al 2006 [27]

2 nurses

1

-

2

≥ 10

1 min

Mean of 2 readings

appropriate cuff size

seated

Right arm

manual

Burket 2006 [35]

Nurses, confirmed by physician if raised BP

1

-

1 - 2; BP repeated only if 1st reading is raised

nr

On average, 26.5 mins

nr

nr

seated

arm

manual

Cappuccio et al 2004 [36, 75]

Doctors, nurses, clerks

1

-

3

≥ 5

1 min

Mean of 2nd and 3rd readings

appropriate cuff size

seated

arm

electronic OMRON HEM705CP

Escalona et al 2004 [18]

Nurses

1

-

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

seated

arm

Manual

Hill et al 2007 [29, 44]

2 trained nurses

1

-

2

nr

nr

nr; both readings had to be raised

two cuff sizes

1303 seated 1253 supine

arm

Manual

Agyeman et al 2006 [28, 42]

Trained staff

1

-

2

5

≥ 5 mins

Mean of two readings

appropriate cuff size

seated

right arm

electronic - Omron M5-I

Addo et al 2008 [31]

Trained interviewers

1 - 2, BP repeated at a later visit if initially > 140/90 mmHg without treatment

3 weeks

1-3

≥ 10

1 min

Mean of 2nd & 3rd readings

appropriate cuff size

Seated with feet flat on floor

right arm

electronic - Omron M5-I

Owiredu et al 2008 [19]

Trained personnel

1

-

2

> 5

5 mins

Mean of two readings

nr

seated

Left arm

Manual

Kunutsor & Powles 2009 [34]

6 trained personnel

1 - 2 BP re-taken in consenting sub-sample at a later visit

2 weeks

1 - 2

nr

nr

Mean of two readings

nr

seated

right arm

electronic - OMRON MX3 Plus

Mensa-Wilmot 2003 [26]

nurses

1

-

3

≥ 5

≥ 5 mins

Mean of 2nd and 3rd readings

nr

seated

wrist

electronic OMORON R5-I wrist digital

Akufo 2008 [25]

Nurse and 2 field assistants

1

-

3

≥ 30

5 mins

Mean of the 3 readings

nr

seated

right arm

electronic OMRON M4-I digital

  1. Nr = not reported