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Table 2 Blood pressure measurement techniques in epidemiological studies on hypertension in Ghana

From: Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review

Study references Personnel taking BP No. of visits Interval between visits Frequency of readings per visit Initial rest time (mins) Interval between multiple readings Reading used in analysis cuff size Posture Part of body on which BP taken Device
Pobee et al 1979 [2224, 74] nr 1 -2; If 2nd BP reading higher than that defined for age, BP re-taken at a later visit 24 hours 1 - 3 nr 10 mins 1st or 3rd BP reading nr seated right arm manual
Pobee et al 1977 [24, 32] 2 field staff 1 - 3 5-10 nr Mean of three readings 14 cm wide cuff seated right arm manual
Ikeme et al 1978 [21, 22, 37, 41] trained nurses 1 - 1 - 3; BP repeated twice if BP > 160/95 mmHg 5 10 mins Initial BP two cuff sizes 12 × 10 cm, 14 × 17 cm seated right arm Manual
Chukwuemeka et al 1983 [20, 74] trained nurses 1 - As in Ikeme et al 1978[21] 5 nr nr two cuff sizes 12 × 10 cm, 14 × 17 cm seated right arm manual
Hesse 1998 [30] 4 medical officers 1 - 2; BP re-taken at a later visit if BP > 140/90 mmHg 1 month 3 5 30 secs Mean of latter 3 readings appropriate cuff size seated right arm manual
Amoah 2003 [33] 3 nurses 1 - 2 ≥ 10 1 min Mean of two readings appropriate cuff size seated right arm manual
Addo et al 2006 [27] 2 nurses 1 - 2 ≥ 10 1 min Mean of 2 readings appropriate cuff size seated Right arm manual
Burket 2006 [35] Nurses, confirmed by physician if raised BP 1 - 1 - 2; BP repeated only if 1st reading is raised nr On average, 26.5 mins nr nr seated arm manual
Cappuccio et al 2004 [36, 75] Doctors, nurses, clerks 1 - 3 ≥ 5 1 min Mean of 2nd and 3rd readings appropriate cuff size seated arm electronic OMRON HEM705CP
Escalona et al 2004 [18] Nurses 1 - nr nr nr nr nr seated arm Manual
Hill et al 2007 [29, 44] 2 trained nurses 1 - 2 nr nr nr; both readings had to be raised two cuff sizes 1303 seated 1253 supine arm Manual
Agyeman et al 2006 [28, 42] Trained staff 1 - 2 5 ≥ 5 mins Mean of two readings appropriate cuff size seated right arm electronic - Omron M5-I
Addo et al 2008 [31] Trained interviewers 1 - 2, BP repeated at a later visit if initially > 140/90 mmHg without treatment 3 weeks 1-3 ≥ 10 1 min Mean of 2nd & 3rd readings appropriate cuff size Seated with feet flat on floor right arm electronic - Omron M5-I
Owiredu et al 2008 [19] Trained personnel 1 - 2 > 5 5 mins Mean of two readings nr seated Left arm Manual
Kunutsor & Powles 2009 [34] 6 trained personnel 1 - 2 BP re-taken in consenting sub-sample at a later visit 2 weeks 1 - 2 nr nr Mean of two readings nr seated right arm electronic - OMRON MX3 Plus
Mensa-Wilmot 2003 [26] nurses 1 - 3 ≥ 5 ≥ 5 mins Mean of 2nd and 3rd readings nr seated wrist electronic OMORON R5-I wrist digital
Akufo 2008 [25] Nurse and 2 field assistants 1 - 3 ≥ 30 5 mins Mean of the 3 readings nr seated right arm electronic OMRON M4-I digital
  1. Nr = not reported