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Table 2 Prevalence and univariate analysis of exposures and potential risk factors among cases with autochthonous Giardia infection (n = 120) and matched controls (n = 240), Germany, 2007-2008

From: Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany

  Cases Controls   
  n (%)* n (%)* ORMH** 95%CI
Male sex 80 (66.7) 95 (39.6) 2.99 1.86-4.78
Foreign travel last year 45 (37.5) 125 (52.0) 0.54 0.34-0.86
   Low risk travel destinations only 34 (28.3) 92 (38.3) 0.62 0.38-1.01
   High risk travel destinations 11 (9.17) 32 (13.3) 0.66 0.32-1.35
Working (age 17-65 years) 57 (60.0) 111 (56.6) 1.73 0.87-3.46
Contact with persons with diarrhoea 12 (12.9) 31 (16.1) 0.73 0.34-1.56
Changing diapers for children 14 (13.7) 38 (18.1) 0.64 0.32-1.28
Caring for disabled or elderly persons 4 (4.0) 14 (6.7) 0.59 0.19-1.81
Owning pets 40 (36.3) 92 (39.8) 0.87 0.53-1.41
Host factors     
   Impaired Immunity 13 (11.2) 7 (3.0) 5.47 1.76-17.0
   On antacid therapy 16 (13.4) 16 (6.8) 2.18 1.04-4.59
Household structure     
   children 0-2 years 18 (15.0) 23 (9.6) 1.80 0.88-3.68
   children 3-6 years 26 (21.7) 48 (20.0) 1.14 0.62-2.11
   children 7-19 years 34 (28.4) 83 (34.6) 0.69 0.40-1.19
Eating, Drinking     
   Vegetarian food only 5 (4.5) 10 (4.3) 1.25 0.41-3.82
   Green salad, daily 26 (21.7) 25 (10.4) 2.5 1.33-4.69
   Raw vegetables, daily 32 (26.7) 75 (31.3) 0.77 0.45-1.31
   Raw milk at all 2 (1.7) 10 (4.4) 0.41 0.09-2.03
   Mineral water daily 88 (73.3) 170 (70.8) 1.14 0.69-1.88
   Tap water daily 36 (30.0) 111 (46.3) 0.44 0.26-0.74
Swimming/water sports 29 (24.4) 77 (34.1) 0.58 0.34-1.00
Contact with waste water 3 (2.6) 9 (4.0) 0.62 0.15-2.53
Outdoor activities 41 (36.6) 151 (69.6) 0.12 0.06-0.26
   Fishing 1 (0.9) 9 (4.1) 0.18 0.02-1.50
   Gardening 24 (21.4) 87 (40.1) 0.27 0.14-0.54
   Farming 0 6 (2.8)   
   Hunting 0 3 (1.4)   
   Hiking 17 (15.2) 64 (29.5) 0.37 0.19-0.72
   Camping 8 (7.1) 8 (3.7) 1.64 0.57-4.75
Living on a farm 0 8 (3.4)   
Contact with animals 61 (51.3) 147 (62.0) 0.60 0.37-0.98
   Cat 31 (26.0) 77 (32.4) 0.72 0.44-1.19
   Dog 41 (34.5) 81 (34.1) 1.02 0.61-1.70
   Bird 10 (8.4) 16 (6.8) 1.29 0.52-3.24
   Guinea pig 1 (0.8) 6 (2.5) 0.33 0.04-2.77
   Rabbit/hare 8 (6.7) 17 (7.2) 0.93 0.38-2.28
   Horse 4 (3.4) 16 (6.8) 0.47 0.15-1.46
   Cow 2 (1.7) 14 (5.9) 0.25 0.05-1.16
   Pig 0 4 (1.7)   
   Sheep 2 (1.7) 2 (0.8) 2.00 0.28-14.2
   Goat 1 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 2.00 0.13-31.9
  1. *The percentage refers to the proportion among participants who either answered yes or no (i.e. missing and don't-know answers excluded).
  2. **Mantel Haenszel odds ratio
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