Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with autochthonous (n = 131) and travel-associated (n = 142)Giardia infections, Germany, 2007-2008

From: Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany

  Autochthonous infections Travel-associated infections  
  n (%)* n (%)* p-value
Male sex 85 (64.9) 68 (48.2) 0.007
Foreign travel last year 49 (37.4) 91 (64.1) 0.001
   Low risk travel destinations only 37 (28.2) 30 (21.1) 0.205
   High risk travel destinations 12 (9.16) 61 (43.0) 0.001
Median age (range), years 41 (0-92) 35 (1-81) 0.046 w
Working (age 17-65 years) 59 (72.8) 83 (78.3) 0.394
Born in foreign countries 17 (14.5) 14 (11.7) 0.566
Residency    0.571w
   < 5,000 inhabitants 11 (9.0) 15 (11.0)  
   5,000-20,000 inhabitants 17 (13.9) 21 (15.4)  
   > 20,000-100,000 inhabitants 29 (23.8) 31 (22.8)  
   > 100,000 inhabitants 68 (54.4) 69 (50.7)  
Clinical manifestations    
   Diarrhoea 109 (83.2) 122 (85.9) 0.615
   Bloating 94 (71.8) 103 (72.5) 0.893
   Cramps 81 (61.8) 93 (65.5) 0.614
   Loss of appetite 67 (51.2) 79 (55.6) 0.469
   Nausea 65 (49.6) 69 (48.6) 0.904
   Irregular stools 47 (38.2) 72 (54.1) 0.012
   Fever 40 (32.5) 32 (24.2) 0.165
   Vomiting 39 (29.8) 36 (25.3) 0.420
Hospitalization and workdays missed    
   Hospitalization required 18 (15.1) 5 (3.7) 0.002
   Sick-leave required 34 (37.0) 38 (35.5) 0.883
Laboratory Methods    
   Microscopy 51 (38.9) 73 (51.4) 0.040
   Antigen test (ELISA, IFT) 96 (73.3) 89 (62.7) 0.070
Reason for laboratory examination    
   Symptoms 124 (94.7) 132 (92.7) 0.623
   Contact positive 1 (0.8) 5 (3.5) 0.216
   Asylum seeker screening 0 (0) 0 (0)  
   Other diseases 4 (3.1) 5 (3.5) 1.000
Host factors    
   Impaired Immunity 15 (11.8) 2 (1.5) 0.001
   On antacid therapy 18 (14.0) 10 (7.5) 0.110
   Vegetarian 5 (4.2) 5 (3.8) 1.000
Contact with persons (for adult cases only)    
   Changing diapers for children 15 (13.8) 11 (9.1) 0.301
   persons 4 (3.6) 5 (4.1) 1.000
Children in household    
   Children 0-2 years 20 (15.3) 10 (7.1) 0.034
   Children 3-6 years 27 (20.6) 23 (16.2) 0.353
   Children 7-19 years 40 (30.5) 39 (27.5) 0.595
Animal contacts    
   Living on a farm 0 (0) 0 (0)  
   Owning pets 42 (35.0) 31 (23.0) 0.038
  1. *The percentage refers to the proportion among participants who either answered yes or no (i.e. missing and don't-know answers excluded), if not otherwise specified.
  2. W Wilcoxon ranksum test.
\