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Table 5 Regional and neighbourhood characteristics models with fixed effects, random effects and standard errors for PCS in 2004

From: The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

  Model 4a
(sociodemographic/selected regional and neighbourhood variables**)
Model 5a
(+ specific neighbourhood variables)
Model 6a
(+ specific neighbourhood/health behaviour variables)
  β (SE) p-value β (SE) p-value β (SE) p-value
Fixed effects       
Level 1 (individuals)       
Smoking      -0.24 (0.13) 0.065
No sports      -1.48* (0.13) < 0.001
BMI in kg/m2       
   < 25.0      Ref.  
   25.0- 29.9      -0.93* (0.13) < 0.001
   ≥ 30.0      -3.42* (0.18) < 0.001
Level 2 (households)       
Purchasing power in 1,000 € 0.05* (0.01) < 0.001 0.04* (0.01) 0.001 0.03* (0.01) 0.015
Disturbance by noise       
   None    Ref.   Ref.  
   Little    -0.37* (0.17) 0.029 -0.37* (0.17) 0.027
   Tolerable    -0.66* (0.24) 0.007 -0.65* (0.24) 0.007
   Strong    -0.71* (0.35) 0.042 -0.64 (0.34) 0.065
   Very strong    -0.61 (0.61) 0.317 -0.64 (0.59) 0.283
Disturbance by air pollution       
   None    Ref.   Ref.  
   Little    -0.39* (0.17) 0.021 -0.42* (0.17) 0.013
   Tolerable    -0.95* (0.27) < 0.001 -0.98* (0.27) < 0.001
   Strong    -1.53* (0.43) < 0.001 -1.59* (0.42) < 0.001
   Very strong    -2.36* (0.85) 0.005 -2.19* (0.83) 0.009
Walking distance to public green space       
   Less than 10 min.    Ref.   Ref.  
   10 to 20 min.    -0.21 (0.17) 0.203 -0.18 (0.16) 0.269
   More than 20 min.    -0.94* (0.27) < 0.001 -0.82* (0.27) 0.002
   Not existing/unavailable by foot    -0.71* (0.23) 0.002 -0.63* (0.22) 0.004
   Not specified    -0.55 (0.47) 0.251 -0.48 (0.47) 0.308
Walking distance to public sports/leisure facilities       
   Less than 10 min.    Ref.   Ref.  
   10 to 20 min.    -0.32* (0.16) 0.038 -0.30 (0.15) 0.051
   More than 20 min.    -0.72* (0.21) 0.001 -0.70* (0.21) 0.001
   Not existing/unavailable by foot    -0.74* (0.26) 0.004 -0.63* (0.25) 0.012
   Not specified    -2.30* (0.44) < 0.001 -2.34* (0.43) < 0.001
Level 3 (regions)       
East -0.51* (0.24) 0.035 -0.39 (0.24) 0.101 -0.37 (0.23) 0.119
Random variation       
Level 1 (individuals) 57.76 (0.81)   57.62 (0.81)   56.71 (0.79)  
Level 2 (households) 9.82 (0.69)   9.31 (0.68)   8.38 (0.66)  
Level 3 (regions) 1.16 (0.20)   1.09 (0.20)   1.01 (0.19)  
-2*loglikelihood
(number of cases)
144,387
(20,481)
144,204
(20,481)
143,657
(20,481)
  1. Notes: PCS, physical component score; β, beta coefficients; SE, standard errors; BMI, Body Mass Index. a adjusted for age, gender, migration background, education and unemployment at level 1 as well as household type and net equivalence income (log) at level 2. * significant at the 5% level using Wald test. ** Neighbourhood variables were selected using backward selection based on the Wald test, p-values > 0.1.