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Table 3 Regional models with fixed effects, random effects and standard errors for PCS in 2004

From: The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

  Model 1
(baseline)
Model 2
(+ sociodemographic variables)
Model 3
(+ sociodemographic/
selected regional variables**)
  β (SE) p-value β (SE) p-value β (SE) p-value
Fixed effects       
Constant 49.37* (0.11) < 0.001 51.62* (0.17) < 0.001 51.94* (0.18) < 0.001
Level 1 (individuals)       
Age -0.31* (0.00) < 0.001 -0.31* (0.00) < 0.001 -0.31* (0.00) < 0.001
Male 0.92* (0.11) < 0.001 0.70* (0.11) < 0.001 0.71* (0.11) < 0.001
Migration background    -0.19 (0.18) 0.296 -0.31 (0.18) 0.084
Education       
   High    Ref.   Ref.  
   Intermediate    -1.85* (0.17) < 0.001 -1.87* (0.17) < 0.001
   Low    -3.10* (0.18) < 0.001 -3.21* (0.18) < 0.001
   Still in school    -3.92* (0.47) < 0.001 -3.93* (0.47) < 0.001
   Not specified    -3.11* (0.38) < 0.001 -3.18* (0.38) < 0.001
Unemployed    -0.80* (0.23) < 0.001 -0.73* (0.23) 0.001
Level 2 (households)       
Single household    0.25 (0.18) 0.150 0.23 (0.18) 0.185
Net equivalence income (log)    1.40* (0.12) < 0.001 1.31* (0.13) < 0.001
Level 3 (regions)       
East      -1.03* (0.21) < 0.001
Random variation       
Level 1 (individuals) 57.97 (0.81)   57.63 (0.80)   57.69 (0.80)  
Level 2 (households) 12.20 (0.72)   9.87 (0.69)   9.84 (0.69)  
Level 3 (regions) 1.73 (0.25)   1.45 (0.23)   1.24 (0.21)  
-2*loglikelihood
(number of cases)
147,201
(20,775)
146,480
(20,775)
146,456
(20,775)
  1. Notes: PCS, physical component score; β, beta coefficients; SE, standard errors. * significant at the 5% level using the Wald test. ** Regional variables were selected using backward selection based on Wald test, p-values > 0.1.