Skip to main content

Table 1 Specific interventions to address HIV and tuberculosis grouped under the main stratagems for epidemic control

From: Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

Stratagem HIV Tuberculosis
Prevention of primary infection
behavioural modification decreased risk exposure, e.g. safe sex and decreased sex partners [25] and safe injecting drug use [26] education, e.g. cough hygiene [27]
environmental modification decreased risk of occupational exposure through safe handling and disposal of sharps environmental measures to decrease nosocomial transmission [27, 28] (particularly important where HIV prevalence is high)
protect site of infection vaginal microbicides (under evaluation) [29] face masks (NN95 specification) [27]
Modification of risk factors for infection
promote decreased substance abuse decreased alcohol [30] and drugs [30] decreased alcohol [31] and smoking [32]
detect and treat conditions associated with increased risk treatment of sexually transmitted infections [33] detection and management of diabetes [34]
modify personal biological characteristic male circumcision [35]  
Drug prophylaxis
pre-exposure pre-exposure prophylaxis (under evaluation) [36] isoniazid preventive treatment for infants born to mothers with tuberculosis [37]
pre- and post-exposure prevention of mother to child transmission [38]  
post-exposure post-exposure prophylaxis [39] isoniazid preventive treatment for people with latent M. tuberculosis infection or for people at high risk of recurrent tuberculosis [40]
Decreased transmission by treatment of infected individuals (treatment as prevention) [41]
  prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of people with symptomatic HIV-related disease [42] prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of people with symptomatic pulmonary disease [23]
  proposal for prompt diagnosis among asymptomatic individuals either through an individual seeking a test for HIV after an at-risk exposure or through regular universal testing [43] efforts aimed at decreasing diagnostic delay through community education, improved access to care, and improved quality of clinical care [44]
Vaccination to prevent progression from infection to disease
  no vaccine yet available Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination [45]