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Table 1 Serum cotinine geometric means (95% confidence interval) for nonsmokers in United States populations 2001-2006

From: Recent trends in exposure to secondhand smoke in the United States population

Geometric means of serum cotinine (ng/mL) NHANES
2001-2002
NHANES
2003-2004
NHANES
2005-2006
Pvalue
Overall 0.06
(0.05, 0.07)
0.07
(0.06, 0.09)
0.05
(0.05, 0.06)
0.12
Overall - Undetected 0.018
(0.016, 0.020)
0.018
(0.017, 0.020)
0.019
(0.018, 0.020)
0.75
Age: (years)     
   4-11 0.11
(0.07, 0.15)
0.14
(0.07, 0.20)
0.08
(0.06, 0.10)
0.05
4-11 - Undetected 0.018
(0.015, 0.020)
0.018
(0.017, 0.020)
0.018
(0.018, 0.020)
0.84
   12-19 0.09
(0.05, 0.12)
0.11
(0.08, 0.14)
0.08
(0.06, 0.10)
0.08
12-19 - Undetected 0.018
(0.016, 0.020)
0.018
(0.017, 0.020)
0.19
(0.018, 0.021)
0.59
   20+ 0.05
(0.04, 0.06)
0.06
(0.04, 0.07)
0.05
(0.04, 0.05)
0.29
20+ - Undetected 0.018
(0.016, 0.020)
0.018
(0.017, 0.020)
0.19
(0.018, 0.020)
0.79
Gender     
   Male 0.07
(0.05, 0.09)
0.09
(0.07, 0.10)
0.07
(0.06, 0.07)
0.08
Male - Undetected 0.019
(0.016, 0.021)
0.020
(0.019, 0.021)
0.020
(0.019, 0.021)
0.51
   Female 0.05
(0.04, 0.06)
0.06
(0.05, 0.07)
0.05
(0.04, 0.06)
0.22
Female - Undetected 0.018
(0.016, 0.019)
0.017
(0.016, 0.019)
0.018
(0.017, 0.019)
0.88
Race/ethnicity:     
   Non-Hispanic White 0.05
(0.04, 0.06)
0.07
(0.05, 0.08)
0.05
(0.04, 0.06)
0.14
Non-Hispanic White - Undetected 0.018
(0.016, 0.020)
0.018
(0.017, 0.019)
0.19
(0.018, 0.020)
0.66
   Non-Hispanic Black 0.16
(0.13, 0.19)
0.14
(0.10, 0.19)
0.11
(0.09, 0.15)
0.11
Non-Hispanic Black - Undetected 0.23
(0.020, 0.030)
0.22
(0.020, 0.024)
0.22
(0.021, 0.024)
0.88
   Mexican American 0.06
(0.04, 0.08)
0.05
(0.04, 0.07)
0.05
(0.04, 0.06)
0.40
Mexican American - Undetected 0.18
(0.017, 0.020)
0.18
(0.016, 0.020)
0.17
0.016, 0.019)
0.55