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Table 9 Independent Associations Between Diagnoses and Impairments, and Disability

From: The prevalence and social patterning of chronic diseases among older people in a population undergoing health transition. A 10/66 Group cross-sectional population-based survey in the Dominican Republic

Outcome   WHODAS II disability score 15 or more disability days
   Median score in the exposed group (interquartile range) Independent associations between diagnoses and impairments and WHODAS II score 1 Proportion (%) with 15 or more disability days- in the exposed group Independent associations between diagnoses and impairments and 15 or more disability days 2
Exposure Number and proportion (%) exposed   RR 95% confidence intervals   PR 95% confidence intervals Population attributable prevalence fraction
Diagnoses         
Dementia
(10/66 criterion)
235 (11.7%) 27.8 (8.3-58.3) 1.57 1.40, 1.77 79/235 (33.6%) 1.50 1.16, 1.95 10.5%
Stroke 175 (8.7%) 27.8 (8.3-57.6) 1.37 1.21, 1.55 65/175 (37.1%) 1.46 1.12, 1.91 6.5%
Myocardial infarction 35 (1.7%) 19.4 (5.6-38.9) 0.90 0.74, 1.09 7/35 (20.0%) 0.82 0.42, 1.61  
Angina 25 (1.2%) 22.2 (1.4-44.4) 1.23 0.88, 1.73 8/25 (32.0%) 1.50 0.87, 2.57 0.8%
Hypertension 1516 (75.4%) 8.3 (0.0-27.8) 1.00 0.90, 1.11 245/1515 (16.2%) 1.06 0.81, 1.38 5.7%
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 137 (6.8%) 22.2 (5.6-41.7) 1.02 0.90, 1.16 36/137 (26.3%) 1.18 0.85, 1.64 1.6%
Diabetes 3 260 (17.5%) 13.9 (0.0-30.6) 1.07 0.96, 1.19 48/260 (18.5%) 0.92 0.68, 1.26 Inverse association
Anaemia 3 515 (35.0%) 13.9 (0.0-35.4) 1.16 1.06, 1.27 20/84 (23.8%) 1.53 1.16, 2.02 17.1%
ICD-10 depression 278 (13.8%) 33.3 (16.7-50.0) 1.43 1.30, 1.57 91/278 (32.7%) 1.48 1.16, 1.90 9.4%
Impairments         
Arthritis or rheumatism 737 (36.7%) 19.4 (5.6-33.3) 1.34 1.23, 1.46 167/736 (22.7%) 1.68 1.35, 2.10 22.5%
Eyesight problems 796 (39.6%) 19.4 (5.6-36.1) 1.13 1.04, 1.23 153/795 (19.2%) 1.01 0.81, 1.27 1.8%
Hearing difficulty or deafness 255 (12.7%) 25.0 (5.6-43.7) 1.17 1.05, 1.30 60/255 (23.5%) 1.10 0.80, 1.72 0.9%
Persistent cough 207 (10.3%) 19.4 (5.6-41.7) 1.01 0.90, 1.13 55/206 (26.7%) 1.11 0.83, 1.47 2.0%
Difficulty breathing, breathlessness or asthma 191 (9.5%) 30.6 (11.1-47.2) 1.12 1.00, 1.27 60/190 (31.6%) 1.19 0.88, 1.60 2.8%
Heart trouble or angina 93 (4.6%) 27.8 (11.1-40.9) 1.11 0.96, 1.30 26/93 (28.0%) 1.17 0.79, 1.71 0.9%
Stomach or intestine problems 388 (19.3%) 25.0 (8.3-44.4) 1.27 1.16, 1.39 103/388 (26.5%) 1.33 1.04, 1.71 8.9%
Faints or blackouts 71 (3.5%) 33.3 (18.1-56.3) 1.30 1.10,1.53 29/71 (40.8%) 1.25 0.82, 1.92 1.5%
Paralysis, weakness or loss of one leg or arm 102 (5.1%) 50.0 (27.8-69.4) 1.88 1.67,2.12 60/102 (58.8%) 2.50 1.92, 3.25 11.8%
Skin disorders (pressure sores, leg ulcers or burns) 39 (1.9%) 50.0 (27.8-69.4) 1.70 1.40,2.08 21/39 (53.8%) 2.43 1.57, 3.77 4.3%
  1. 1 Zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for all other diagnoses and impairments other than diabetes and anaemia. N = 1975 (see also footnote 3
  2. 2 Poisson regression
  3. 3 Parameters for diabetes and anaemia were obtained from a separate model restricted to those participants who had provided a blood sample