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Table 3 Characteristics of cohort studies

From: Hip fracture risk in relation to vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

Study First author (country) year n Follow up time Study population
Mean age years
Hip Fractures Findings
Study of Osteoporotic Fractures 9704 Up to 5.9 years Postmenopausal women 332 < 47.5 nmol/L vs. ≥47.5 nmol/L 25(OH)D
Cummings [51] (USA) 1998    73 years (using randomly selected cases and controls)   RR Hip fracture 1.2 (0.7, 1.9)
WHI-OS 39793 Up to 9.3 years Postmenopausal women 400 Each 25 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D R Hip fracture 1.33 (1.06, 1.68)
Cauley [52] (USA) 2008   (median 7.1 years) 71 years   ≤47.5 nmol/L vs. ≥70.7 nmol/L OR Hip fracture 1.71 (1.05, 2.79)
NHANES III 1917 Mean 6.7 y ≥65 y Caucasian adults 156 ≥62.5 nmol/L vs. <62.5 nmol/L 25(OH)D
Looker [53] (USA) 2008    73 years   RR Hip fracture 0.64 (0.46, 0.89)