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Table 2 Characteristics of Hip fracture case-control studies

From: Hip fracture risk in relation to vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

Study first author (location) year Cases Controls Participant details
  n Mean Age (SD) years
25(OH)D (SD) nmol/L
PTH (SD) pmol/L
Time sera
collected
(25(OH)D
assay method)
n Mean Age (SD) years
25(OH)D (SD) nmol/L
PTH (SD) pmol/L
 
Population based controls
Lund [34] 67 NR On admission 41 NR Cases: Consecutive patients
(Denmark) 1975   65.0 (45.0)
NR
(CPB)   55.0 (32.5)
NR
Controls: Elderly participants without malabsorption, hepatic or renal disease
Baker [35] 98 80.2 (7.3) - 76 79.4 (7.2) Cases: Consecutive admissions of Caucasian females
(UK) 1979   34.5 (24.5)
NR
   55.8 (33.8)
NR
Controls: Home-based age and sex matched selected from electoral register
Hoikka [36] 55 76.0 - 22 71.0 Cases: Patients admitted from Sept 1978- July 1979
(Finland) 1982   26.6 (18.5)
NR
(HPLC)   56.4 (28.2)
NR
Controls: Healthy age, sex and season matched
Morris [38] 67 77.9 - 50 71.5 Cases: Female hip fracture patients operated on by author
(Australia) 1984   39.2 (21.3)
NR
(CPB)   67.6 (30.4)
NR
Controls: Home-based, ambulant elderly females
Lips [39] 86 73.1 (11.5) - 74 75.6 (4.2) Cases: Hip fracture patients
(Netherlands) 1987   20.4 (11.5) (CPB after HPLC)   32.9 (13.6) Controls: Healthy, independent volunteers living in apartment house for elderly
   0.11 (0.05)*    0.12 (0.05)*  
Lau [40] 198 NR On day of admission 368 NR Cases: Consecutive patients
(Hong Kong) 1989   45.5 (16.4)
NR
(CPB)   73.8 (21.0)
NR
Controls: Sheltered housing residents
Pun [41] 69 78.1 (10.2) Within 12 h admission 28 71.2 (6.4) Cases: Female hip fracture patients
(Hong Kong) 1990   43.7 (22.4)
NR
(CPB)   54.6 (13.1)
NR
Controls: Healthy female participants over 60 y
MacDonald [42] 61 78.9 (10.7) Within 24 h admission pre-surgery 61 78.6 (6.0) Cases: Unselected Chinese female patients admitted to orthopaedic ward
(Hong Kong) 1992   45.8 (22.0) (CPB)   72.5 (21.5) Controls: Hostel for elderly, no fracture history
   4.59 (2.27)    4.04 (2.24)  
Boonen [44] 117 79.2 (8.9) Within 18 h fracture pre-surgery 117 77.7 (5.4) Cases: Consecutive female patients
(Belgium) 1997   25.3 (22.0) (CPB)   53.8 (33.3) Controls: Female, age matched, from general practices
   5.14 (4.66)    1.70 (1.14)  
Community based controls
Von Knorring [37] 58 77.0 (9.3) Prior to surgery 41 78.0 (8.4) Cases: Patients admitted during 2 month periods in summer, winter and early spring
(Finland) 1982   32.4 (17.0) (CPB)   44.7 (22.5) Controls: Age and sex matched non-orthopaedic outpatients or minor surgery patients
   0.45 (0.24)*    0.35 (0.24)*  
Benhamou [43] 57 83.9 (5.9) Within 24 h admission 68 82.5 (5.0) Cases: Consecutively admitted patients
(France) 1995   30.9 (12.2) (RIA)   38.4 (14.7) Controls: Patients in geriatric or rheumatology unit with no bone disease or fracture history
   6.34 (4.65)    4.74 (2.21)  
Thiebaud [45] 179 80.2 (9.6) 5-18 post fracture 180 79.9 (9.6) Cases: Consecutive admissions of original hip fracture caused by fall from standing height or less
(France) 1997   23.5 (20.3) (Radio-receptor)   30.6 (25.4) Controls: Age and sex matched emergency patients with no fracture history
   3.32 (2.77)    4.62 (3.38)  
Di Monaco [46] 444 79.7 (8.6) During hosp mean 35 days post fracture 444 75.5 (5.7) Cases: Caucasian patients sustaining original hip fracture
(Italy) 2004   21.2 (19.5) (immuno-enzymatic)   24.4 (21.7) Controls: Home-based elderly over 65 y referred for first osteodensiometry, no fracture history
   6.02 (4.56)    5.28 (2.32)  
Nuti [47] 74 77.4 (9.3) Within 24 h fracture 73 71.2 (6.1) Cases: Self-sufficient, community-living female patients with adequate sunlight admitted between May-Dec 1999
(Italy) 2004   83.5 (55.0) (CPB)   107.3 (60.0) Controls: Metabolic disease unit outpatients with osteoporosis, no evident osteoporotic fractures admitted between Jul-Nov 1999. Otherwise as per cases
   4.02 (1.79)    3.86 (1.43)  
Bakhtiyarova [48] 63 68.8 (9.5) Within 3 days admission 97 70.2 (8.3) Cases: Low trauma fracture patients
(Russia) 2006   22.4 (11.4) (CPB)   28.1 (10.1) Controls: Patients of ophthalmology unit with no fracture
   3.7 (3.3)    4.9 (2.8)  
Giusti [49] 160 84.0 (6.3) Within 24 h admission (RIA) 160 82.0 (7.6) Cases: Sampled patients admitted to Orthogeriatric unit between Nov 2004-Mar 2005
(Italy) 2006   9.4 (11.6)    9.2 (9.1) Controls: Age, sex and place matched Acute Care unit patients admitted for non-bone reasons
   8.95 (7.79)    9.16 (8.00)  
Sakuma [50] 50 82.6 (8.7) On admission 53 77.2 (5.3) Cases: Sado Island residents admitted to hospital from Jan-Dec 2004
(Japan) 2006   44.5 (19.4) (ELISA)   64.5 (18.5) Controls: Orthopaedic patients with no fracture admitted between Jul-Dec 2004
   4.75 (2.34)    3.31 (1.93)  
  1. CPB: competitive protein binding
  2. HPLC: high profile liquid chromatography
  3. RIA: radioimmunoassay
  4. ELISA: enzyme linked immunoassay
  5. NR: not reported
  6. * non-standardised units