Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with smoking during pregnancy and daily smoking

From: Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

  SMOKING STATUS
  Smoking during pregnancy Daily smoking
  Daily and occasional smoker
n(%)
Did not smoke
n(%)
p Daily smoker
n(%)
Non smoker, stopped smoking, occasional smoker
n(%)
p
Maternal Age       
< 20 14(37.8) 23(62.2) 0.039 15(40.5) 22(59.5) 0.215
20-34 39(19.4) 162(80.6)   53(26.4) 148(73.6)  
≥ 35 5(29.4) 12(70.6)   5(29.4) 12(70.6)  
Maternal education       
Illeterate+only literate 10(52.6) 9(47.4) 0.002 10(52.6) 9(47.4) 0.000
Primary 23(16.8) 114(83.2)   16(11.7) 121(88.3)  
Secondary+University 25(25.3) 74(74.7)   17(17.2) 82(82.8)  
Partner's education       
Illeterate+only literate 9(75.0) 3(25.0) 0.000 9(75.0) 3(25.0) 0.000
Primary 17(17.2) 82(82.8)   14(14.1) 85(85.9)  
Secondary+University 31(21.7) 112(78.3)   19(13.3) 124(86.7)  
Previous births       
Nullipar 23(21.5) 84(78.5) 0.802 14(13.1) 93(86.9) 0.178
1+ 34(22.8) 115(77.2)   29(19.5) 120(80.5)  
Social class       
Employer+Self Employed 13(17.8) 60(82.2) 0.088 7(9.6) 66(90.4) 0.006
White-collar employees 12(24.0) 38(76.0)   7(14.0) 43(86.0)  
Blue-collar workers 18(19.6) 74(80.4)   15(16.3) 77(83.7)  
Marginal, unemployed 15(37.5) 25(62.5)   14(35.0) 26(65.0)  
Place of origin       
Urban 17(36.2) 30(63.8) 0.013 10(21.3) 37(78.7) 0.339
Rural 40(19.4) 166(80.6)   32(15.5) 174(84.5)  
Migrated to Burhaniye       
Yes 33(30.8) 74(69.2) 0.008 26(24.3) 81(75.7) 0.007
No 25(16.8) 124(83.2)   17(11.4) 132(88.6)  
Poverty       
Below poverty level 24(26.4) 67(73.6) 0.000 23(25.3) 68(74.7) 0.007
Above poverty level 34(20.6) 131(79.4)   20(12.1) 145(87.9)  
Perceived Income       
Very good/good 12(16.4) 61(83.6) 0.039 6(8.2) 67(91.8) 0.002
Moderate 26(20.5) 101(79.5)   19(15.0) 108(85.0)  
Low/Very low 19(34.5) 36(65.5)   17(30.9) 38(69.1)  
Partner's smoking status       
Smoked 35(28.0) 90(72.0) 0.046 28(22.4) 97(77.6) 0.019
Did not smoke 23(17.6) 108(82.4)   15(11.5) 116(88.5)