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Table 5 Hazard ratio and population attributable fraction for cardiovascular disease deaths according to the combination of smoking status and clustering of metabolic risk factors: NIPPON DATA90.

From: Population Attributable Fraction of Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan: a 15-Year Follow Up of NIPPON DATA90

  Clustering of metabolic risk factors* Number of participants Person-years of follow-up CVD deaths (n) CVD mortality rate (per 1,000 person-years) Adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) † Estimated excess CVD deaths (n) PAF component for CVD deaths (%)
Men           
Non smoker 0 or 1 281 4002 2 0.50 1.00     
  2 ≤ 275 3924 5 1.27 1.94 (0.38 -10.00) 2.4 2.8
Past smoker 0 or 1 282 4084 7 1.71 2.41 (0.50 -11.65) 4.1 4.7
  2 ≤ 319 4446 14 3.15 3.37 (0.76 -14.96) 9.8 11.3
Smoker 0 or 1 819 11465 23 2.01 4.17 (0.98 -17.71) 17.5 20.1
  2 ≤ 776 10592 36 3.40 5.85 (1.40 -24.38) 29.8 34.3
Women           
Non smoker 0 or 1 2,117 30554 14 0.46 1.00     
  2 ≤ 1314 18661 32 1.71 1.55 (0.82 -2.95) 11.4 18.7
Past smoker 0 or 1 54 698 0 --    -- -- --
  2 ≤ 40 527 2 3.79 3.08 (0.69 -13.81) 1.4 2.2
Smoker 0 or 1 222 3098 5 1.61 4.56 (1.62 -12.87) 3.9 6.4
  2 ≤ 151 2016 8 3.97 5.86 (2.41 -14.23) 6.6 10.9
  1. *Metabolic risk factors were any of the following four factors: obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2), high blood pressure as blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg or on treatment of hypertension, high blood glucose as blood glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl or on treatment of diabetes, dyslipidemia as triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl or high density lipoprotein cholesterol < 40 mg/dl or on treatment of dyslipidemia.
  2. †Hazard ratios were adjusted for age and drinking.
  3. CVD, cardiovascular diseases; PAF, population attributable fraction; CI, confidence interval.