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Table 4 Hazard ratio and population attributable fraction for cardiovascular disease deaths according to the combination of smoking status and metabolic syndrome: NIPPON DATA90.

From: Population Attributable Fraction of Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan: a 15-Year Follow Up of NIPPON DATA90

  Metabolic syndrome* Number of participants Person-years of follow-up CVD deaths (n) CVD mortality rate (per 1,000 person-years) Adjusted hazard ratio( 95% CI) † Estimated excess CVD deaths (n) PAF component for CVD deaths (%)
Men           
Non smoker - 480 6817 6 0.88 1.00     
  + 76 1109 1 0.90 1.32 (0.16 -10.97) 0.2 0.3
Past smoker - 494 7036 18 2.56 2.13 (0.84 - 5.39) 9.5 11.0
  + 107 1494 3 2.01 1.49 (0.37 - 6.01) 1.0 1.1
Smoker - 1343 18620 50 2.69 3.47 (1.48 - 8.12) 35.6 40.9
  + 252 3437 9 2.62 3.19 (1.13 - 9.03) 6.2 7.1
Women           
Non smoker - 3,034 43585 38 0.87 1.00     
  + 397 5631 8 1.42 0.83 (0.38 - 1.78) -- --
Past smoker - 81 1042 1 0.96 1.06 (0.15 - 7.81) 0.05 0.1
  + 13 184 1 5.45 2.98 (0.41 -21.79) 0.6 1.1
Smoker - 336 4627 10 2.16 3.63 (1.75 - 7.50) 7.2 11.9
  + 37 486 3 6.17 4.94 (1.52 -16.09) 2.4 3.9
  1. *Metabolic syndrome were defined as follows: obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) plus any two of the following three factors: high blood pressure as blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg or on treatment of hypertension, high blood glucose as blood glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl or on treatment of diabetes, dyslipidemia as triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl or high density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dl or on treatment of dyslipidemia.
  2. †Hazard ratios were adjusted for age and drinking.
  3. CVD, cardiovascular diseases; PAF, population attributable fraction; CI, confidence interval.