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Table 2 Results of the multivariate logistic regression

From: Low level exposure to cadmium increases the risk of chronic kidney disease: analysis of the NHANES 1999-2006

  CKD ALB
  OR 95% CI Sig. (P) OR 95% CI Sig. (P)
Urinary Cd - univariate model
Urinary Cd       
   - ≤ 1 mcg/g Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - > 1 mcg/g 1.61 1.14, 2.28 0.007 2.23 1.72, 2.89 < 0.001
Urinary Cd - multivariate model
Urinary Cd       
   - ≤ 1 mcg/g Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - > 1 mcg/g 0.70 0.47, 1.04 0.079 1.63 1.23, 2.16 0.001
Age (1 year) 1.12 1.11, 1.13 < 0.001 1.04 1.03, 1.04 < 0.001
Gender       
   - Female Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - Male 1.28 1.01, 1.62 0.039 0.65 0.55, 0.77 < 0.001
BMI (1 Kg/m2) 1.03 1.01, 1.05 0.002 1.04 1.03, 1.05 < 0.001
Race/ethnicity       
   - Mexican american Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - Non-hispanic white 3.50 2.00, 6.11 < 0.001 1.16 0.84, 1.62 0.371
   - Non Hispanic black 2.65 1.82, 3.86 < 0.001 0.65 0.53, 0.80 < 0.001
   - Other 1.89 1.20, 2.97 < 0.001 1.12 0.89, 1.42 0.325
Blood Cd - univariate model
Blood Cd       
   - ≤ 1 mcg/L Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - > 1 mcg/L 0.96 0.70, 1.32 0.007 1.28 1.02, 1.61 0.034
Blood Cd - multivariate model
Blood Cd       
   - ≤ 1 mcg/L Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - > 1 mcg/L 1.48 1.01, 2.17 0.046 1.41 1.10, 1.82 0.007
Age (1 year) 1.12 1.11, 1.13 < 0.001 1.04 1.03, 1.04 < 0.001
Gender       
   - Female Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - Male 1.22 0.97, 1.54 0.094 0.67 0.56, 0.79 < 0.001
BMI (1 Kg/m2) 1.04 1.02, 1.06 < 0.001 1.04 1.02, 1.05 < 0.001
Race/ethnicity       
   - Mexican american Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - Non-hispanic white 3.29 1.88, 5.76 < 0.001 1.15 0.83, 1.60 0.405
   - Non Hispanic black 2.66 1.83, 3.88 < 0.001 0.64 0.52, 0.79 < 0.001
   - Other 1.88 1.19, 2.95 0.006 1.10 0.87, 1.38 0.456
Interaction urinary/blood Cd
Urinary/blood Cd       
   - ≤ 1 mcg/g-1 mcg/L Ref Ref - Ref Ref -
   - > 1 mcg/g-1 mcg/L 1.01 0.60, 1. 27 0.964 1.62 1.10, 2.38 0.014