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Table 1 Characteristics of North Texas Healthy Heart study participants by presence of coronary artery calcification-- Fort Worth, Texas, 2006-8 (N = 510)

From: Self-reported racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and coronary calcification in asymptomatic adults - the North Texas Healthy Heart study

Variable Any calcification, n (%) No calcification, n (%) p-value*
Age, mean (SD) 58.4 (8.6) 53.4 (6.9) < .001
Body mass index, mean (SD) 32.0 (7.0) 30.4 (6.0) 0.01
Gender    < .001
   Female 90 (28.4) 227 (71.6)  
   Men 96 (49.7) 97 (50.3)  
Race/ethnicity    < .001
   Non-Hispanic white 71 (50.0) 71 (50.0)  
   Non-Hispanic African American 59 (35.3) 108 (64.7)  
   Hispanic 52 (26.9) 141 (73.1)  
Education    0.39
   Less than High school 34 (30.9) 76 (69.1)  
   High school graduate/GED 39 (37.5) 65 (62.5)  
   Some college or higher 113 (38.2) 183 (61.8)  
Smoked ≥ 100 cigarettes in one's life    0.002
   Yes 95 (44.4) 119 (55.6)  
   No 89 (30.8) 200 (69.2)  
Diabetes Mellitus status    0.005
   Yes 46 (48.9) 48 (51.1)  
   No 139 (33.7) 274 (66.3)  
Hypertension status    0.004
   Yes 111 (42.7) 149 (57.3)  
   No 73 (30.2) 169 (69.8)  
Hyperlipidemia status    < 0.001
   Yes 119 (44.6) 148 (55.4)  
   No 67 (27.8) 174 (72.2)  
First degree relative with history of coronary heart disease    0.01
   Yes 106 (41.9) 147 (58.1)  
   No 76 (31.3) 167 (68.7)  
Depressive symptomatology    
   Low (CES-D score < 17) 135 (36.3) 237 (63.7)  
   High (CES-D score ≥ 17) 50 (36.5) 87 (63.5)  
Response to unfair treatment    0.96
   Active 123 (37.0) 209 (63.0)  
   Passive 63 (36.8) 108 (63.2)  
Experienced racial discrimination    
   Yes 125 (35.5) 227 (64.5)  
   No 61 (38.6) 97 (61.4)  
  1. * P value corresponds to a two sided p value for t-tests for continuous variables and to chi square analyses for categorical variables.