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Table 5 Predictors of infant undernutrition at 12 months of age in Butajira Birth cohort, Ethiopia (n = 926)*

From: Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE Birth Cohort

Characteristics considered Underweight Stunting
  n (%) or
Mean(SD)
Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) N (%) or
Mean(SD)
Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Feeding practices individually adjusted for full model       
Non-exclusive breast-feeding at 2 months 146(15.9) 0.82(0.52,1.29) 0.87(0.53,1.42) 145(15.9) 1.31(0.92,1.87) 1.46(0.97,2.20)
No pre-lacteal food 864(95.4) 1.15(0.52,2.53) 1.02(0.42,2.48) 857(95.2) 0.98(0.53,1.81) 0.99(0.50,1.95)
Colostrums not given 166(18.3) 1.22(0.82,1.82) 1.04(0.66,1.63) 165(18.3) 0.84(0.60,1.18) 0.78(0.53,1.15)
Breast feeding delayed for 1 hour 618(68.1) 1.21(0.85,1.72) 1.20(0.81,1.78) 614(68.2) 0.94(0.71,1.24) 0.85(0.62,1.17)
Fully adjusted model       
Characteristics of mother       
Age (years) 26.9(6.2) 1.04(1.01,1.06) 1.04(1.00,1.08) 26.9(6.2) 1.01(0.99,1.04) 1.02(0.99,1.06)
Height (metres) 1.58(0.06) 1.00(0.97,1.02) 1.00(0.97,1.03) 1.58(0.06) 0.99(0.97,1.01) 0.99(0.97,1.02)
Mid upper arm circumference (cm) 24.7(2.1) 0.91(0.84,0.98) 0.89(0.81,0.97) 24.7(2.1) 0.95(0.89,1.01) 0.95(0.89,1.02)
Being in polygamous marriage 162(17.6) 0.90(0.59,1.38) 0.77(0.45,1.33) 162(17.7) 1.06(0.76,1.49) 1.19(0.76,1.87)
Autonomy scale (0-5) 1.1(1.8) 1.02(0.94,1.11) 1.04(0.95,1.15) 1.1(1.8) 0.97(0.91,1.04) 1.00(0.92,1.08)
Use khat and/or alcohol 104(11.3) 0.70(0.41,1.22) 0.81(0.45,1.47) 104(11.4) 0.77(0.51,1.16) 0.81(0.51,1.28)
Had at least one obstetric complication 573(64.5) 0.91(0.65,1.27) 1.03(0.71,1.49) 571(64.7) 0.86(0.65,1.14) 0.92(0.68,1.26)
Household characteristics       
Urban residence 124(13.5) 0.43(0.24,0.78) 0.38(0.16,0.90) 123(13.4) 0.53(0.36,0.79) 0.52(0.28,0.99)
Number of under 5 children:       
   0 189(20.5) 1 1 187(20.4) 1 1
   1 470(51.0) 1.69(1.07,2.67) 1.33(0.77,2.30) 466(50.9) 1.20(0.85,1.68) 0.96(0.63,1.46)
   ≥ 2 263(28.5) 1.70(1.04,2.79) 1.75(0.98,3.14) 263(28.7) 1.15(0.79,1.67) 1.19(0.76,1.87)
Age of father in years 36.0(8.8) 1.02(1.00,1.04) 1.02(0.98,1.05) 36.1(8.9) 1.01(0.99,1.02) 1.00(0.97,1.02)
Poverty index (0 to 11) 7.3(2.0) 1.08(0.99,1.17) 0.85(0.74,0.97) 7.3(2.0) 1.08(1.01,1.15) 0.98(0.88,1.09)
Poor sanitary condition (0 to 3) 1.5(1.0) 1.45(1.22,1.72) 1.39(1.13,1.73) 1.5(0.9) 1.37(1.19,1.58) 1.30(1.08,1.55)
Higher level of social support (0 to 4) 1.1(1.1) 1.09(0.94,1.26) 1.07(0.91,1.26 1.1(1.1) 1.08(0.95,1.22) 1.06(0.93,1.22)
Characteristics of index child       
Female gender 456(49.5) 0.80(0.58,1.10) 0.86(0.60,1.23) 449(49.0) 0.48(0.37,0.63) 0.46(0.34,0.62)
Not immunised at two months 381(41.5) 1.22(0.89,1.69) 1.15(0.81,1.65) 379(41.6) 0.96(0.74,1.25) 0.97(0.72,1.30)
Severe illness in the first 2 months 193(21.0) 1.13(0.77,1.66) 1.17(0.76,1.79) 192(21.1) 0.91(0.66,1.26) 0.83(0.58,1.19)
Birth weight:       
   Normal (> = 2500 gm) 570(61.8) 1 1 568(62.0) 1 1
   Low (<2500 gm) 43(4.7) 3.08(1.62,5.85) 3.00(1.47,6.13) 41(4.5) 2.71(1.39,5.28) 2.88(1.38,6.03)
   Not measured 309(33.5) 1.23(0.88,1.73) 1.28(0.87,1.87) 307(35.5) 1.94(1.46,2.57) 2.18(1.59,3.01)
  1. * this number slightly vary in some variables due to missing value