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Table 3 Multivariate survival analysis: Patient and provider characteristics associated with 1-year mortality after hip fracture

From: Incidence and mortality of hip fracture among the elderly population in South Korea: a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims data

  Variables N (%) Hazard ratio 95% confidence interval
Gender Female 6,892 (70.2) 1.000  
  Male 2,925 (29.8) 1.400 (1.260-1.557)
Age (years) 50-59 576 (5.9) 1.000  
  60-69 2,135 (21.7) 1.787 (1.250-2.553)
  70-79 3,772 (38.4) 2.879 (2.041-4.062)
  80-89 2,923 (29.8) 4.742 (3.361-6.691)
  ≥ 90 411 (4.2) 9.273 (6.387-13.463)
Residence Seoul (Capital city) 2,388 (24.3) 1.000  
  Metropolitan city 2,584 (26.3) 1.291 (1.120-1.488)
  Small city 4,133 (42.1) 1.214 (1.058-1.392)
  Others (none-city area) 712 (7.3) 1.656 (1.344-2.039)
Health
insurance
National Health Insurance program 8,514 (86.7) 1.000  
  National Medical Aid program 1,303 (13.3) 1.300 (1.136-1.488)
Baseline 0 4,742 (48.3) 1.000  
   Charlson 1 4,038 (41.1) 1.339 (1.198-1.496)
   Index (before hip fracture) 2 938 (9.6) 2.625 (2.264-3.042)
  3, 6 99 (1.0) 5.693 (4.249-7.627)
Type of
hip fracture
Neck fracture 5,435 (55.4) 1.000  
  Petrochanteric fracture. 3,733 (38.0) 1.090 (0.966-1.230)
  Neck + Petrochanteric fracture. 649 (6.6) 1.031 (0.843-1.261)
Type of operation Total hip replacement (ICD 10th procedure code: N0711) 4,574 (46.6) 1.000  
  Open reduction/internal fixation (N0601) 4,592 (46.8) 0.963 (0.855-1.084)
  Closed reduction/percutaneous fixation (N0991) 397 (4.0) 0.958 (0.720-1.274)
  Hip hemiarthroplasty (N0715) 216 (2.2) 0.793 (0.536-1.174)
  Total hip replacement & Open reduction (N0711 + N0601) 38 (0.4) 1.213 (0.575-2.561)
Treatment* No 7,761 (79.1) 1.000  
  Yes 2,056 (20.9) 0.576 (0.499-0.666)
Type of hospital providing operation Tertiary hospital 2,714 (27.6) 1.000  
  General hospital 4,649 (47.4) 0.900 (0.796-1.018)
  Hospital 1,901 (19.4) 0.798 (0.680-0.937)
  Clinic 553 (5.6) 0.746 (0.573-0.972)
  1. * Treatment was defined as whether the patient took at least one prescription of anti-osteoporosis medicine after hip fracture.