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Table 6 Frequency, age-adjusted risk, and risk ratio of the occurrence of lung cancer, identified by hospital or death records, between baseline and 31 December 2005 by number of categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking status among 16,901 adults

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

     Relative risk of lung cancer*
  N Cases Age-adjusted risk
(95% CI)**
Model A
RR (95% CI)
Model B
RR (95% CI)
Categories of ACEs, No.      
   0 6124 53 359.4 (268.7-480.6) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   1 4411 26 248.8 (168.9-366.3) 0.75 (0.47, 1.20) 0.69 (0.43, 1.11)
   2 2681 28 720.5 (394.8-1311.0) 1.52 (0.95, 2.42) 1.35 (0.84, 2.16)
   3 1599 18 805.5 (492.8-1313.9) 1.92 (1.11, 3.33) 1.58 (0.90, 2.76)
   4 or 5 1637 15 641.0 (373.9-1096.6) 1.88 (1.04, 3.41) 1.51 (0.83, 2.78)
   6, 7, or 8 449 4 635.8 (239.5-1676.8) 2.70 (0.94, 7.72) 1.83 (0.63, 5.35)
     P for trend = 0.001 P for trend = 0.017
Smoking status      
   Never 8589 16 108.4 (64.9-179.8)   1.00 (referent)
   Former 6879 90 539.6 (426.0-683.2)   4.83 (2.80-8.33)
   Current, <20 cig/d 870 13 1166.8 (676.2-2006.2)   10.11 (4.78-21.39)
   Current, ≥ 20 cig/d 563 25 3448.5 (2210.2-5342.7)   25.48 (13.10-49.56)
Total 16,901 144 432.3 (362.2-515.7)   
  1. ACEs, adverse childhood experiences RR, risk ratio CI, confidence interval
  2. * Lung cancer cases identified through either a hospital discharge diagnosis of lung cancer defined by ICD-9 code 162 or an underlying cause of death from lung cancer defined by ICD-9 code 162 for deaths between 1995-1998; ICD-10 code C34 for deaths between 1999 and 2005.
  3. ** Rate (per 100,000 population) age-standardized to the 2000 Census population for California.
  4. Model A adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, married, financial problems
  5. Model B adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, married, financial problems, smoking status, parental smoking history. In addition to the RR estimates for ACE score, we show the RR estimates for smoking status from the regression model.