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Table 3 Association between number of categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the prevalence and risk of selected smoking behaviors among 17,337 adults

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

   Early Smoking Initiation Initiated Smoking
After Age 18 yrs‡
Ever Smoked Current Smoker Heavy Smoker§
Categories of ACEs, No. N Prevalence OR(95% CI)* Prevalence OR (95% CI)* Prevalence† OR (95% CI)* Prevalence† OR (95% CI)* Prevalence† OR (95% CI)*
   0 6255 3.2 1.00 (referent) 27.1 1.00 (referent) 33.7 1.00 (referent) 7.0 1.00 (referent) 2.0 1.00 (referent)
   1 4514 4.9 1.53 (1.26, 1.87) 28.2 1.15 (1.04, 1.28) 39.9 1.29 (1.19, 1.40) 8.8 1.10 (0.95, 1.28) 2.5 1.12 (0.88, 1.43)
   2 2758 6.1 1.88 (1.51, 2.32) 29.0 1.32 (1.17, 1.50) 45.6 1.62 (1.47, 1.78) 10.5 1.28 (1.09, 1.52) 3.6 1.38 (1.06, 1.80)
   3 1650 8.2 2.69 (2.14, 3.39) 31.0 1.56 (1.34, 1.81) 50.7 1.91 (1.70, 2.14) 13.8 1.60 (1.33, 1.93) 5.0 2.05 (1.55, 2.72)
   4 or 5 1690 10.3 3.55 (2.85, 4.42) 28.8 1.56 (1.33, 1.83) 55.1 2.44 (2.17, 2.74) 13.9 1.78 (1.49, 2.13) 5.4 2.39 (1.83, 3.13)
   6, 7, or 8 470 17.9 7.06 (5.27, 9.45) 30.7 1.93 (1.45, 2.58) 61.4 3.27 (2.67, 4.01) 17.0 2.08 (1.59, 2.72) 6.3 2.46 (1.63, 3.71)
  1. ACEs, adverse childhood experiences OR, odds ratio CI, confidence interval
  2. * Logistic regression analyses include age, sex, race/ethnicity, education; P value for the linear trend across ACE Score categories was < 0.001 for all smoking behaviors.
  3. † Age standardized using the 2000 Census population for California.
  4. ‡ Persons who began smoking by age 18 years were excluded from this analysis (n = 5166)
  5. §Defined as smoking at least 1 pack of cigarettes per day (20 cigarettes per pack); light smokers were excluded from this analysis (n = 864).