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Table 2 Definition and age-standardized prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) at baseline by smoking: Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, California, 1995-1997

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

  Ever Smoked, %
(n = 8551)
Never Smoked, %
(n = 8786)
Childhood Abuse   
Emotional 16.0 10.4
(Did a parent or other adult in the household ...)   
1) Often or very often swear at you, insult you, or put you down?   
2) Sometimes, often, or very often act in a way that made you that you might be physically hurt?   
Physical 36.9 26.1
(Did a parent or other adult in the household ...)   
1) Often or very often push, grab, slap, or throw something at you?   
2) Often or very often hit you so hard that you had marks or were injured?   
Sexual 27.3 19.2
(Did an adult or person at least 5 years older ever ...)   
1) Touch or fondle you in a sexual way?   
2) Have you touch their body in a sexual way?   
3) Attempt oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you?   
4) Actually have oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you?   
Household dysfunction   
Substance abuse 39.7 27.7
1) Live with anyone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic?   
2) Live with anyone who used street drugs?   
Mental Illness 26.1 20.1
1) Was a household member depressed or mentally ill?   
2) Did a household member attempt suicide?   
Mother treated violently 17.7 12.7
(Was your mother (or stepmother) ...)   
1) Sometimes, often, or very often pushed, grabbed, slapped, or had something thrown at her?   
2) Sometimes, often, or very often kicked, bitten, hit with a fist, or hit with something hard?   
3) Ever repeatedly hit over at least a few minutes?   
4) Ever threatened with or hurt by a knife or gun?   
Incarcerated household member 8.2 4.9
1) Did a household member go to prison?   
Parental separation or divorce 34.3 24.0
1) Were your parents ever separated or divorced?   
Categories of adverse childhood experiences, No.   
   0 24.7 36.3
   1 22.9 26.2
   2 17.6 15.9
   3 12.8 9.3
   4 or 5 15.7 9.6
   6, 7, or 8 6.3 2.7
  1. Respondents were defined as exposed to a category if they responded "yes" to one or more of the questions in that category.