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Table 2 Cut-off criteria in the baseline questionnaire and in the professional screening intervention for selected at-risk pupils referral to clinical assessment

From: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE): a randomized controlled trial

Theme Cut-off value/threshold value Risky and self-injurious behavior is diagnosed when
Depression (BDI) BDI-score ≥ 14; depending on the responses, from 0 to 3 points are assigned (cf. manual) and added. A BDI score of ≥ 14 is obtained.
Anxiety (ZUNG) ZUNG-score ≥ 45;
depending on the responses, from 1 to 4 points are assigned and added.
A ZUNG score of ≥ 45 is obtained.
Suicidal Ideation and Attempts PAYKEL Scale The cut-off of at least one single item is obtained.
   Yes/No response: previous suicide attempt. 'Yes' is the response given.
Non-suicidal self-injury Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI) A sum of ≥ 2 is obtained and all points must therefore be added.
Eating behavior Both responses are needed to calculate the BMI score. The BMI score is less than 16.5.
Sensation-seeking and delinquent behaviors Yes/No response: riding with someone who has been drinking. The sum of ≥ 3 for the theme 'risk behavior' is obtained. All points must therefore be added.
   Yes/No response: skateboarding or riding roller-blades in traffic and without a helmet.  
   Yes/No response: subway cart jumping, or held on the back of a moving vehicle.  
   Yes/No response: visiting known areas that are dangerous during night.  
   Sexual Promiscuity
Unprotected Sex
Substance abuse Tobacco Tobacco Use (lifetime measure) 'Yes' is the response given to tobacco use, and 2 cigarettes per day or more for tobacco consumption frequency.
   Tobacco Consumption Frequency  
  Alcohol Alcohol Consumption Frequency (12-month measure) 2 times per week or more
   Alcohol Consumption Amount (12-month measure) 3 or more drinks in a typical drinking day
   Alcohol Intoxication (lifetime measure) 3 times or more
   Alcohol Hangover (lifetime measure) 3 times or more
  Illegal drugs Illicit Drug Consumption (lifetime measure) 3 times or more
Exposure to media Media Exposure Frequency Option 4, 5 or 6 is ticked, i.e. a pupil spends at least 'five to six hours per day' watching television, playing computer games etc.
Social relationships Loneliness Frequency (12-month measure) Option 4 ('most of the time') or 5 ('always') is checked.
Bullying Peer Victimization (12-month measure) The sum of ≥ 5 is obtained. All response options must therefore be added.
School attendance Truancy (2-week measure) Option 3, 4 or 5 is ticked, i.e. respondents have missed three or more days of school or class without permission.