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Table 4 The survey logistic regression models (ORs and 95%CI) for health services utilisation and its associated risk factors (n = 3742)

From: Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

Covariates Maternal and child health centre or phone help Maternal and child health nurse visits General practitioner Hospital outpatient clinic Other medical or dental services
Model 1      
NESB vs ESB infants 0.56 [0.40-0.79]** 0.68 [0.49-0.95]* 0.58 [0.40-0.83]** 0.54 [0.31-0.93]* 0.87 [0.48-1.55]
Infant sex      
   male vs female 1.08 [0.93-1.24] 0.90 [0.78-1.02] 1.15 [0.94-1.41] 1.32 [1.06-1.65]* 1.16 [0.90-1.50]
Mothers' age      
   15~20 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   21~25 1.65 [0.99-2.76] 1.48 [0.94-2.34] 1.29 [0.75-2.21] 1.09 [0.50-2.38] 1.92 [0.56-6.54]
   26~30 2.12 [1.31-3.44]** 1.59 [0.98-2.57] 1.40 [0.84-2.34] 1.06 [0.51-2.20] 2.67 [0.72-9.96]
   31~35 2.83 [1.74-4.61]** 1.50 [0.94-2.39] 1.55 [0.92-2.61] 1.26 [0.61-2.59] 2.56 [0.68-9.61]
   36~40 2.83 [1.70-4.72]** 1.37 [0.85-2.19] 1.40 [0.79-2.48] 1.31 [0.61-2.82] 2.27 [0.58-8.87]
   41 and older 1.90 [1.06-3.42]* 1.82 [1.02-3.26]* 1.70 [0.82-3.54] 1.66 [0.62-4.39] 3.19 [0.77-13.21]
Marital status      
   married vs single 1.05 [0.87-1.28] 0.96 [0.79-1.18] 1.35 [1.07-1.70]* 0.67 [0.49-0.90]** 0.85 [0.62-1.17]
Mothers' education status      
   under Year 12 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   year 12 or equivalent 1.22 [1.02-1.46]* 1.28 [1.03-1.59]* 1.11 [0.86-1.45] 1.30 [0.96-1.76] 0.82 [0.57-1.16]
   tertiary qualification۴ 1.78 [1.48-2.15]** 1.49 [1.22-1.84]** 1.23 [0.96-1.57] 1.40 [1.01-1.95]* 0.91 [0.67-1.22]
Mothers' LEP      
   very well 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   well 0.99 [0.63-1.57] 0.71 [0.44-1.16] 0.71 [0.42-1.20] 1.54 [0.77-3.07] 1.10 [0.52-2.32]
   not well/not at all 0.69 [0.32-1.47] 0.71 [0.33-1.54] 0.63 [0.30-1.34] 1.76 [0.56-5.49] 1.79 [0.73-4.36]
Smoking during pregnancy      
   yes vs no 0.78 [0.63-0.96]* 0.91 [0.72-1.14] 1.04 [0.81-1.33] 1.05 [0.75-1.46] 1.07 [0.74-1.54]
Drink during pregnancy      
   yes vs no 1.43 [1.22-1.67]** 1.13 [0.95-1.34] 1.23 [1.02-1.49]* 1.05 [0.81-1.35] 0.91 [0.71-1.18]
Number of children in household
   one 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   two 0.66 [0.55-0.77]** 0.91 [0.77-1.08] 0.98 [0.79-1.22] 0.76 [0.58-1.01] 1.10 [0.84-1.43]
   three 0.46 [0.37-0.57]** 0.73 [0.59-0.91]** 0.98 [0.74-1.30] 0.79 [0.54-1.16] 1.65 [1.19-2.30]**
   four or more 0.35 [0.26-0.48]** 0.58 [0.43-0.79]** 1.03 [0.72-1.48] 1.02 [0.63-1.65] 1.86 [1.20-2.87]**
Family income per week      
   less than $499 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   $500 - $999 1.19 [0.91-1.55] 1.07 [0.80-1.42] 1.56 [1.19-2.05]** 1.25 [0.80-1.95] 0.98 [0.63-1.54]
   $1000 - $1499 1.32 [1.02-1.70]* 1.02 [0.75-1.37] 1.66 [1.22-2.25]** 1.15 [0.71-1.86] 1.07 [0.65-1.75]
   $1500 - $1999 1.18 [0.86-1.61] 1.32 [0.92-1.89] 1.63 [1.15-2.30]** 1.25 [0.76-2.06] 1.37 [0.81-2.32]
   $2000 or more 1.42 [1.02-1.98]* 0.88 [0.61-1.28] 1.89 [1.30-2.73]** 1.23 [0.71-2.13] 1.54 [0.91-2.62]
Region of residence      
   metropolitan vs non-metropolitan 1.14 [0.96-1.36] 1.10 [0.93-1.30] 1.46 [1.18-1.80]** 1.07 [0.79-1.45] 1.15 [0.87-1.51]
Private health insured      
   yes vs no 1.04 [0.88-1.23] 1.00 [0.83-1.19] 0.99 [0.80-1.22] 0.69 [0.51-0.95]* 1.27 [0.93-1.72]
Model 2 §      
Mothers' LEP      
   very well 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   well 0.73 [0.46-1.17] 0.58 [0.37-0.92]* 0.53 [0.34-0.84]** 1.14 [0.57-2.27] 1.02 [0.50-2.07]
   not well/not at all 0.46 [0.21-1.00]* 0.54 [0.26-1.14] 0.43 [0.21-0.88]* 1.15 [0.36-3.67] 1.61 [0.68-3.80]
Model 3      
NESB with very well or well English proficiency vs ESB 0.63 [0.46-0.86]** 0.58 [0.43-0.77]** 0.58 [0.42-0.79]** 0.58 [0.34-0.99]* 1.11 [0.68-1.83]
NESB with not well or no English proficiency vs ESB 0.21 [0.08-0.59]** 0.49 [0.21-1.14] 0.40 [0.18-0.87]* 1.38 [0.42-4.58] 1.80 [0.72-4.49]
Covariates Hospital emergency ward Hospitalisation Other specialist Paediatrician  
Model 1      
NESB vs ESB infants 0.86 [0.57-1.28] 0.81 [0.46-1.43] 1.06 [0.66-1.70] 0.76 [0.52-1.10]  
Infant sex      
   male vs female 1.05 [0.89-1.25] 1.22 [0.95-1.57] 1.19 [0.98-1.44] 1.23 [1.07-1.43]**  
Mothers' age      
   15~20 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
   21~25 1.13 [0.65-1.96] 1.02 [0.53-1.96] 4.65 [0.99-21.77] 1.27 [0.69-2.33]  
   26~30 1.01 [0.59-1.74] 0.86 [0.42-1.73] 7.80 [1.75-34.66]** 1.24 [0.66-2.32]  
   31~35 1.08 [0.62-1.88] 0.86 [0.41-1.80] 7.54 [1.70-33.52]** 1.39 [0.75-2.57]  
   36~40 1.04 [0.56-1.92] 0.95 [0.43-2.14] 9.92 [2.17-45.32]** 1.22 [0.65-2.30]  
   41 and older 0.80 [0.40-1.60] 0.61 [0.22-1.73] 5.95 [1.18-30.01]* 1.51 [0.77-2.96]  
Marital status      
   married vs single 0.83 [0.66-1.03] 0.91 [0.66-1.27] 0.88 [0.65-1.19] 0.98 [0.79-1.21]  
Mothers' Education      
   under Year 12 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
   year 12 or equivalent 1.01 [0.81-1.26] 0.78 [0.58-1.07] 1.15 [0.85-1.55] 1.01 [0.81-1.26]  
   tertiary qualification۴ 1.01 [0.80-1.28] 0.87 [0.63-1.19] 1.23 [0.92-1.63] 1.29 [1.06-1.57]*  
Mothers' LEP      
   very well 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
   well 0.71 [0.38-1.33] 1.29 [0.60-2.78] 0.63 [0.26-1.51] 0.56 [0.28-1.15]  
   not well or not at all 1.69 [0.74-3.88] 1.13 [0.37-3.46] 1.44 [0.54-3.82] 0.50 [0.21-1.20]  
Smoking during pregnancy      
   yes vs no 1.12 [0.90-1.41] 0.92 [0.66-1.28] 0.98 [0.70-1.37] 1.03 [0.82-1.29]  
Drinking during pregnancy      
   yes vs no 0.92 [0.77-1.11] 0.95 [0.72-1.25] 1.14 [0.92-1.42] 1.04 [0.89-1.22]  
Number of children in household      
   one 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
   two 1.01 [0.84-1.21] 1.07 [0.82-1.41] 0.80 [0.63-1.01] 0.95 [0.80-1.12]  
   three 1.15 [0.87-1.51] 1.57 [1.12-2.20]** 0.86 [0.61-1.19] 0.80 [0.62-1.02]  
   four or more 0.87 [0.59-1.28] 0.80 [0.45-1.43] 0.92 [0.58-1.46] 0.81 [0.58-1.13]  
Family income per week      
   less than $499 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
   $500 - $999 1.02 [0.75-1.38] 1.05 [0.68-1.63] 0.87 [0.58-1.30] 1.03 [0.75-1.42]  
   $1000 - $1499 1.05 [0.77-1.43] 0.86 [0.53-1.40] 1.08 [0.71-1.65] 0.90 [0.65-1.25]  
   $1500 - $1999 0.98 [0.68-1.42] 0.93 [0.54-1.60] 0.81 [0.51-1.30] 1.00 [0.70-1.41]  
   $2000 or more 1.16 [0.80-1.69] 0.94 [0.50-1.74] 0.88 [0.54-1.44] 1.02 [0.71-1.46]  
Region of residence      
   metropolitan vs non- metropolitan 1.10 [0.89-1.35] 1.03 [0.79-1.34] 1.04 [0.83-1.30] 1.38 [1.13-1.68]**  
Private health insured      
   yes vs no 0.90 [0.72-1.13] 0.96 [0.71-1.30] 1.64 [1.28-2.10]** 3.48 [2.93-4.13]**  
Model 2 §      
Mothers' LEP      
   very well 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
   well 0.65 [0.35-1.22] 1.15 [0.57-2.34] 0.65 [0.29-1.48] 0.49 [0.25-0.97]*  
   not well or not at all 1.52 [0.64-3.56] 0.97 [0.34-2.77] 1.49 [0.59-3.80] 0.42 [0.17-1.01]  
Model 3      
NESB with very well or well English proficiency vs ESB 0.90 [0.63-1.28] 0.85 [0.50-1.43] 1.05 [0.69-1.58] 0.66 [0.48-0.91]*  
NESB with not well or no English proficiency vs ESB 1.79 [0.68-4.77] 0.66 [0.05-8.67] 1.36 [0.45-4.14] 0.54 [0.23-1.26]  
  1. Model 1: The model included both NESB and mother's LEP as predictors, and all results were listed in the table.
  2. NESB = non-English speaking background, ESB = English speaking background, LEP = limited English proficiency.
  3. *Significant at 5%; **Significant at 1%.
  4. ۴ Tertiary qualification includes postgraduate degree, graduate diploma/certificate, bachelor degree, and advanced diploma/diploma.
  5. §Model 2: Removing variable NESB from Model 1. We only listed the results of mothers' LEP due to the similar results of other variables compared to Model 1.
  6. Model 3: Combining the ethnicity and English proficiency into one single variable with three categories: ESB vs NESB with very well or well English proficiency; ESB vs NESB with not well or no English proficiency. Other variables were the same as that in Model 1. We only listed the results for the composite variable; and other results were similar to that in Model 1.