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Table 3 Characteristics of the study children and their mothers by language speaking background

From: Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

Characteristics NESB
n = 511
ESB§
n = 4284
P-value
Predisposing    
Infant    
Mean age by month (SE) 8.9 (0.13) 8.8 (0.06) 0.65
Male, % 49.1 51.4 0.29
Mean birth weight(Gram)(SE) 3307.1(27.57) 3416.8(9.72) <0.001**
Maternal    
Mothers' age groups, %    
   15~20 years 2.4 3.8 0.03*
   21~25 years 14.5 12.6  
   26~30 years 29.8 26.1  
   31~35 years 28.9 37.2  
   36~40 years 20.7 16.6  
   41 years or older 3.7 3.7  
Marital status, %    <0.001**
   Married 85.6 72.1  
   Single 14.4 27.9  
Education, %    0.23
   Tertiary qualification۴ 42.0 39.9  
   Year 12 or equivalent only 25.7 23.4  
   Under Year 12 32.3 36.8  
English proficiency, %    
   Very well 51.8 98.1 <0.001**
   Well 22.9 1.4  
   Not well or not at all 25.4 0.6  
Mother employed, % 36.5 50.9 <0.001**
Smoking during pregnancy, % 8.4 17.6 <0.001**
Drinking during pregnancy, % 15.7 40.7 <0.001**
Number of children in household, %
   One 41.7 39.2 0.09
   Two 32.9 37.4  
   Three 15.4 16.4  
   Four or more 10.0 7.1  
Enabling    
Family income per week, %    <0.001**
   Less than $499 19.3 11.9  
   $500-$999 38.0 32.7  
   $1000-$1499 23.7 27.1  
   $1500-$1999 11.2 14.2  
   $2000 or more 7.9 14.0  
Mean SEIFA score (SE)ץ 994.8 (9.44) 1006.5 (4.20) 0.16
Region of residence, %    <0.001**
   Metropolitan 93.6 64.2  
   Non-metropolitan 6.4 35.8  
Private health insurance covered, % 27.9 47.8 <0.001**
Infants' health status    
Overall health rating for fair or poor, % 1.87 3.14 0.19
Physical outcome index (SE) 99.6(0.55) 100.2 (0.17) 0.27
Medical conditions or disabilities, % 5.1 5.3 0.85
Medical care needs due to injury or accident since birth, % 7.3 6.5 0.48
  1. The percentages were weighted for the survey data. NESB = non-English speaking background. §ESB = English speaking. *Significant at 5%; **Significant at 1%.
  2. ۴Tertiary qualification includes postgraduate degree, graduate diploma/certificate, bachelor degree, and advanced diploma/diploma.
  3. ץSEIFA = Socio-Economic Index for Areas. Study child has any medical conditions or disabilities that have lasted, or are likely to last, for six months or more.