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Table 3 Characteristics of the study children and their mothers by language speaking background

From: Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

Characteristics

NESB

n = 511

ESB§

n = 4284

P-value

Predisposing

   

Infant

   

Mean age by month (SE)

8.9 (0.13)

8.8 (0.06)

0.65

Male, %

49.1

51.4

0.29

Mean birth weight(Gram)(SE)

3307.1(27.57)

3416.8(9.72)

<0.001**

Maternal

   

Mothers' age groups, %

   

   15~20 years

2.4

3.8

0.03*

   21~25 years

14.5

12.6

 

   26~30 years

29.8

26.1

 

   31~35 years

28.9

37.2

 

   36~40 years

20.7

16.6

 

   41 years or older

3.7

3.7

 

Marital status, %

  

<0.001**

   Married

85.6

72.1

 

   Single

14.4

27.9

 

Education, %

  

0.23

   Tertiary qualification۴

42.0

39.9

 

   Year 12 or equivalent only

25.7

23.4

 

   Under Year 12

32.3

36.8

 

English proficiency, %

   

   Very well

51.8

98.1

<0.001**

   Well

22.9

1.4

 

   Not well or not at all

25.4

0.6

 

Mother employed, %

36.5

50.9

<0.001**

Smoking during pregnancy, %

8.4

17.6

<0.001**

Drinking during pregnancy, %

15.7

40.7

<0.001**

Number of children in household, %

   One

41.7

39.2

0.09

   Two

32.9

37.4

 

   Three

15.4

16.4

 

   Four or more

10.0

7.1

 

Enabling

   

Family income per week, %

  

<0.001**

   Less than $499

19.3

11.9

 

   $500-$999

38.0

32.7

 

   $1000-$1499

23.7

27.1

 

   $1500-$1999

11.2

14.2

 

   $2000 or more

7.9

14.0

 

Mean SEIFA score (SE)ץ

994.8 (9.44)

1006.5 (4.20)

0.16

Region of residence, %

  

<0.001**

   Metropolitan

93.6

64.2

 

   Non-metropolitan

6.4

35.8

 

Private health insurance covered, %

27.9

47.8

<0.001**

Infants' health status

   

Overall health rating for fair or poor, %

1.87

3.14

0.19

Physical outcome index (SE)

99.6(0.55)

100.2 (0.17)

0.27

Medical conditions or disabilities, %

5.1

5.3

0.85

Medical care needs due to injury or accident since birth, %

7.3

6.5

0.48

  1. The percentages were weighted for the survey data. NESB = non-English speaking background. §ESB = English speaking. *Significant at 5%; **Significant at 1%.
  2. ۴Tertiary qualification includes postgraduate degree, graduate diploma/certificate, bachelor degree, and advanced diploma/diploma.
  3. ץSEIFA = Socio-Economic Index for Areas. Study child has any medical conditions or disabilities that have lasted, or are likely to last, for six months or more.